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Do Women Want to Break the Glass Ceiling? A Study of their Career Orientations and Gender Identity in The Netherlands


  • Sandra G. L. Schruijer

    () (Utrecht School of Governance, Utrecht University)


Career orientations, career success and perceived self-efficacy of women employees in relation to their gender identity were studied. It was hypothesized that gender identity is related to career orientations such that women with a masculine gender identity strive for more upward mobility as compared to women with a feminine gender identity, whereas the latter strive more for balancing work and private life. A masculine gender identity was furthermore predicted to be positively related to career success in terms of income and hierarchical position. Finally it was expected that women with a feminine gender identity, in comparison to those with a masculine gender identity, express a lower self-efficacy with respect to stereotypical male and gender-neutral tasks and equal self-efficacy with respect to stereotypical feminine tasks. To test the hypotheses, a questionnaire was distributed among women working for a large multinational corporation. The results provided support for the first two hypotheses. Mixed support was obtained for the third hypothesis.

Suggested Citation

  • Sandra G. L. Schruijer, 2006. "Do Women Want to Break the Glass Ceiling? A Study of their Career Orientations and Gender Identity in The Netherlands," management revue. Socio-economic Studies, Rainer Hampp Verlag, vol. 17(2), pages 143-154.
  • Handle: RePEc:rai:mamere:1861-9908_mrev_2006_02_schruijer

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    1. repec:ilo:ilowps:344117 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Elke Holst & Dean R. Lillard & Thomas A. DiPrete, 2001. "Proceedings of the 2000 Fourth International Conference of German Socio-Economic Panel Study Users (GSOEP 2000): Editorial Introduction," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 70(1), pages 5-6.
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    More about this item


    Gender Identity; Career Orientations;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • J53 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General


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