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1) Discrimination vis-à-vis des emplois en contact avec la clientèle

Listed author(s):
  • Laurence Bouvard
  • Pierre-Philippe Combes
  • Bruno Decreuse
  • Morgane Laouénan
  • Benoît Schmutz
  • Alain Trannoy

[eng] The Geography of Unemployment of First and Second-generation Africans in France: 1) Customer Discrimination in Face-to-face Jobs. It is well-known that the unemployment rate differential between people of foreign and French origins has increased over the past decades. This statement must be completed by two key features. First, the unemployment rate differential is considerably higher in large cities than in small ones. Second, this geographic dualism has been magnified over time. This paper documents these two facts and offers a credible interpretation that relies on market failures on local labour markets. The hypotheses we test are the following ones. 1) People of foreign origin are mostly discriminated against in jobs which imply a face-to-face interaction with the customers. 2) Jobs that do not imply such an interaction have been swept out of big cities because of the increase in land prices ; the proportion of discrimination-prone jobs in urban areas has increased accordingly. If we buy the idea that foreign populations were stuck in large cites due to biased preferences or reasons linked to the housing market (an hypothesis we test in the companion paper we publish in this issue of the journal), we shed light on a spatial mismatch for foreign population at the national level. It would have been easier for them to find a non-discriminated job in smaller cities. Our empirical work is based on national labor surveys (FQJP and CdT) and the French census. in large cities than in small ones. Second, this geographic dualism has been magnified over time. This paper documents these two facts and offers a credible interpretation that relies on market failures on local labour markets. The hypotheses we test are the following ones. 1) People of foreign origin are mostly discriminated against in jobs which imply a face-to-face interaction with the customers. 2) Jobs that do not imply such an interaction have been swept out of big cities because of the increase in land prices ; the proportion of discrimination-prone jobs in urban areas has increased accordingly. If we buy the idea that foreign populations were stuck in large cites due to biased preferences or reasons linked to the housing market (an hypothesis we test in the companion paper we publish in this issue of the journal), we shed light on a spatial mismatch for foreign population at the national level. It would have been easier for them to find a non- discriminated job in smaller cities. Our empirical work is based on national labor surveys (FQJP and CdT) and the French census. [fre] Géographie du chômage des personnes d'origine africaine : 1) Discrimination vis-à-vis des emplois en contact avec la clientèle ? Il est relativement connu que le différentiel de taux de chômage entre personnes d'origine africaine et personnes d'origine française n'a fait que croître au cours des trente dernières années. Nous mettons en évidence que ce différentiel de chômage est considérablement plus fort dans les grandes villes que dans les petites, phénomène qui s'est amplifié au cours du temps. Nous présentons une explication plausible de ce résultat en liaison avec des dysfonctionnements du marché de travail. Les hypothèses que nous testons empiriquement sont les suivantes : i) les personnes d'origine africaine sont victimes de discrimination sur le marché du travail dans les emplois dits « en contact avec la clientèle » ; ii) la rente foncière s'est accrue, ce qui a contribué à éliminer les emplois sans contact des grandes agglomérations urbaines. En conséquence, la proportion d'emplois discriminés a relativement augmenté dans les grandes agglomérations. Si l'on accepte l'idée que les personnes d'origine africaine sont restées dans les grandes agglomérations pour des raisons liées à leurs préférences ou au marché du logement, hypothèse que nous testons dans l'article suivant, nous avons mis en évidence un phénomène de mésallocation spatiale des individus d'origine africaine au niveau national puisqu'il leur aurait été relativement plus facile de trouver un travail non discriminé dans les petites agglomérations. Nous mobilisons les enquêtes Formation qualification professionnelle, emploi et conditions de travail ainsi que les recensements pour mener à bien ce travail empirique. conséquence, la proportion d'emplois discriminés a relativement augmenté dans les grandes agglomérations. Si l'on accepte l'idée que les personnes d'origine africaine sont restées dans les grandes agglomérations pour des raisons liées à leurs préférences ou au marché du logement, hypothèse que nous testons dans l'article suivant, nous avons mis en évidence un phénomène de mésallocation spatiale des individus d'origine africaine au niveau national puisqu'il leur aurait été relativement plus facile de trouver un travail non discriminé dans les petites agglomérations. Nous mobilisons les enquêtes Formation qualification professionnelle, emploi et conditions de travail ainsi que les recensements pour mener à bien ce travail empirique.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/rfeco.2009.1736
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/rfeco_0769-0479_2009_num_23_3_1736
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 23 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 8-56

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2009_num_23_3_1736
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2009.1736
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/rfeco

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