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La contribution de la substitution d'importation à la croissance dans les Dom-Tom (1971-1989)

  • Bernard Poirine

[eng] This paper studies the economic growth of the french overseas departments and territories from 1971 to 1992. It appears that the GNP growth was due almost only to domestic absorption, fuelled by a rapid increase of public transfers from metropolitan France. Import substitution has had negative or nul effects on growth in most cases, and small positive effects in one case (French Polynesia). Exports have had very small effects on growth, except for New Caledonia, due to Nickel exports. Since the french overseas departments and territories have consistently lowed import substitution policies (that is, protectionist policies to promote local production of imported goods), it appears that this development strategy has failed to bring about self-sustained economic growth. [fre] L'article analyse la contribution à la croissance des DOM-TOM des différentes composantes de la demande : demande intérieure, substitution d'importation, exportations. C'est la croissance de la demande intérieure, elle-même alimentée par les transferts publics métropolitains, qui explique la plus grande part de la croissance des DOM-TOM de 1971 à 1989. Ni la substitution d'importation, ni les exportations n'ont joué un rôle significatif (sauf en Nouvelle-Calédonie). La substitution d'importation a eu en fait un effet négatif ou nul sur la croissance de la plupart des DOM-TOM (sauf en Polynésie française, où l'effet est positif mais très faible, et obtenu au prix d'un fort accroissement du protectionnisme pendant la période). Pourtant, les politiques officielles de développement dans les DOM- TOM ont eu pour but de favoriser la substitution d'importation, notamment par le maintien d'un fort degré de protectionnisme. . Ces politiques n'ont donc pas atteint leur but, qui était de promouvoir une croissance « autocentrée ».

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 11 (1996)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 167-192

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1996_num_11_4_1012
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1996.1012
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