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Hétérogénéité des agents et la relation pollution-revenu

Author

Listed:
  • Alain Bousquet
  • Pascal Favard

Abstract

[eng] Several econometric studies have shown that, at least for some pollutants, the relationship between emissions and income per capita follows an inverted U curve, known as "environmental Kuznets cuve". This paper present a simple microeco-nomic model in which income explain the shape of the emission path. Under some hypothesis, the trade-off between consumption and pollution imply that the pollution path follows three phases. In the first one, the consumers provides any effort in order to reduce the pollution, such an effort is done in the second phase. This effort is just sufficient to limit the rate of pollution growth. When the income per capita is high enough the pollution decrease, this is the third phase. In this paper, we show that the consumer heterogeneity is crucial in order to well characterize the pollution income relationship. [fre] Plusieurs études économétriques ont montré que certaines pollutions dépen­dent du revenu par tête selon une relation, en forme de U inversé, dénommée « Environmental Kuznets Curve ». Cet article propose un modèle microéconomique simple permettant d'expliquer le rôle du revenu dans l'évolution de la pollution. Sous certaines hypothèses, l'arbitrage entre la consommation et la pollution implique une évolution de la pollution suivant trois phases. Dans la première, les consommateurs ne consentent à aucun effort pour limiter la quantité de pollution, un tel effort est engagé dans une deuxième phase. Cet effort permet seulement de limiter la progression de la pollution. Ce n'est que dans une troisième et dernière phase, correspondant à un revenu suffisamment élevé, qu'il est possible d'observer une diminution de la pollution. Dans cet article, nous montrons que la prise en compte du caractère hétérogène de la population est déterminant pour caractériser correctement la relation pollution-revenu.

Suggested Citation

  • Alain Bousquet & Pascal Favard, 2001. "Hétérogénéité des agents et la relation pollution-revenu," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 52(6), pages 1185-1203.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2001_num_52_6_410380
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    Cited by:

    1. Yandle, B. & Bhattarai, M. & Vijayaraghavan, M., 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curves: a review of findings, methods, and policy implications. PERC Research study 02-1 update," IWMI Research Reports H044740, International Water Management Institute.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D3 - Microeconomics - - Distribution
    • H4 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation

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