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Quand les hausses du SMIC réduisent le coût du travail

  • Yannick L'Horty
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    [eng] When the increases of the minimum wage decrease the labor cost The aim of this study is to analyze the consequences of the French system of social contribution cuts, targeted on unskilled workers labor cost, which has been introduced since 1993. This system induces labor cost reduction which have three main effects on employment. The first one, a substitution effect, and the second one, an income effect, are well known. The last one, that we have called an assessment effect, is peculiar to targeted tax cuts. We show that the combination of these three effects can explain the trend break in the employment share of unskilled workers that happened in France in the nineties. Therefore, this system can also put a brake on individual wages increases, and they change the way that minimum wage works as a structural policy tool. In the presence of these social contribution cuts, the labor cost of unskilled workers decrease when minimum wage increase. [fre] Cette étude analyse les principales vertus et limites des dispositifs d'allégement de charges sur les bas salaires qui ont été mis en œuvre en France depuis 1993. Ces dispositifs consistent en des mécanismes originaux permettant de réduire le coût du travail de façon ciblée, dans le bas de la distribution des salaires. Ils jouent sur l'emploi au travers de trois effets principaux. Les deux premiers, effet de substitution et de revenu, sont traditionnels. Le dernier, qualifié ici d'effet d'assiette, est propre aux instruments modifiant le coût du travail de façon ciblée. On montre que le jeu combiné de ces effets est susceptible d'expliquer la stabilisation de la part de l'emploi peu qualifié constatée en France depuis la mise en œuvre de ces dispositifs. Pour autant, ces mécanismes ont pour inconvénients de freiner les progressions individuelles des salaires et d'interférer avec un autre instrument de politique structurelle, le salaire minimum de croissance.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

    Volume (Year): 51 (2000)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 499-512

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2000_num_51_3_410531
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