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Inégalités, rigidité salariale et pressions redistributives : vers une remise en cause du "modèle européen" ?

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  • Gilles Saint-Paul

Abstract

[fre] Inégalités, rigidité salariale et pressions redistributives. Vers une remise en cause du « modèle européen » ? On analyse une société hétérogène où les agents ont des qualifications différentes. Dans un premier temps, les agents choisissent collectivement un niveau de compression salariale. Cette compression salariale crée du chômage et change la distribution des revenus. Dans un second temps, les agents votent sur un taux d'imposition, taux qui finance des transferts redistributifs. Parce que la rigidité salariale change la richesse relative du votant médian, elle change aussi le taux d'imposition. On montre alors que les employés, dans la mesure où ils ne sont ni trop riches, ni trop pauvres, vont favoriser une certaine rigidité salariale, soit parce qu'elle augmente leur salaire (pour les plus pauvres d'entre eux), soit parce qu'elle réduit leurs impôts (pour les plus riches d'entre eux). C'est donc la classe moyenne qui bénéficie de ces institutions, tandis que les chômeurs et les extrêmes de la distribution des revenus y sont opposés. [eng] Inequality, wage rigidity, and redistribution : toward a reexamination of the european model ? We consider a heterogeneous society where agents have different skills. Agents first vote on wage rigidity, which creates unemployment and alters the distribution of income. Second, they vote on a tax rate which finances redistributive transfers. Wage rigidity changes the median voter's relative wealth, thus affecting the tax rate. We show that employed voters favor wage rigidity provided they belong to the « middle class », while the poorest and the richest, as well as the unemployment, favour wage flexibility.

Suggested Citation

  • Gilles Saint-Paul, 1997. "Inégalités, rigidité salariale et pressions redistributives : vers une remise en cause du "modèle européen" ?," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 48(5), pages 1165-1176.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1997_num_48_5_409935 Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.1997.409935
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Brander, James & Krugman, Paul, 1983. "A 'reciprocal dumping' model of international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 313-321.
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    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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