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Intensification-induced Degradation of Irrigated Infrastructure: The Case of Waterlogging and Salinity in Pakistan


  • Usman Mustafa

    (Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Agricultural Research Institute, Sariab, Quetta.)

  • P.L. Pingali

    (International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines.)


Water and land development, use, and distribution has played a vital role in agricultural development in Pakistan. The country's canal irrigation system is the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world—consisting of 40,000 miles of canals and over 80,000 water courses, field channels and ditches running for another million miles [Qureshi and Zakir (1994)]. This irrigation network covers more than 70 percent of Pakistan's agriculture. Private investment has also contributed significantly to the irrigation system in the form of private tubewells. About 32 percent of farm-gate available water is supplied by the private tubewells, [Government of Pakistan (1988)]. These developments have not only brought new land under cultivation but also permitted a considerable increase in cropping intensities.

Suggested Citation

  • Usman Mustafa & P.L. Pingali, 1995. "Intensification-induced Degradation of Irrigated Infrastructure: The Case of Waterlogging and Salinity in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 34(4), pages 733-750.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:34:y:1995:i:4:p:733-750

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    Cited by:

    1. Wichelns, Dennis, 1999. "An economic model of waterlogging and salinization in arid regions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 475-491, September.

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