IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding the Effects of Color: How the Correspondence between Available and Required Resources Affects Attitudes


  • Meyers-Levy, Joan
  • Peracchio, Laura A


The impact of presenting full-color, black-and-white, and color-highlighted ad photos is examined under different processing resource conditions. When viewers devote few resources to processing, ads with some color outperform black-and-white ads. However, when viewers engage in more effortful ad processing, attitudes are sensitive to the match between available and required resources. When the substantial resources devoted to ad processing are inadequate of thorough ad scrutiny, black-and-white ads or those that color highlight aspects highly relevant to ad claims are more persuasive. By contrast, when available resources better approximate those required for extensive ad scrutiny, full-color ads or ads that color highlight ad photo elements that are highly relevant to the ad claims are more persuasive than either black-and-white ads or ads that color highlight aspects of low relevance to ad claims. These outcomes are interpreted by extending notions offered by elaboration-likelihood and resource theories. Copyright 1995 by the University of Chicago.

Suggested Citation

  • Meyers-Levy, Joan & Peracchio, Laura A, 1995. "Understanding the Effects of Color: How the Correspondence between Available and Required Resources Affects Attitudes," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 121-138, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jconrs:v:22:y:1995:i:2:p:121-38
    DOI: 10.1086/209440

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Isabel‐María García‐Sánchez & Cristina‐Andrea Araújo‐Bernardo, 2020. "What colour is the corporate social responsibility report? Structural visual rhetoric, impression management strategies, and stakeholder engagement," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 27(2), pages 1117-1142, March.
    2. Wenyan Zhou & Oliver Hinz & Alexander Benlian, 2018. "The impact of the package opening process on product returns," Business Research, Springer;German Academic Association for Business Research, vol. 11(2), pages 279-308, September.
    3. Puccinelli, Nancy M. & Chandrashekaran, Rajesh & Grewal, Dhruv & Suri, Rajneesh, 2013. "Are Men Seduced by Red? The Effect of Red Versus Black Prices on Price Perceptions," Journal of Retailing, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 115-125.
    4. Stokburger-Sauer, Nicola E. & Teichmann, Karin, 2013. "Is luxury just a female thing? The role of gender in luxury brand consumption," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(7), pages 889-896.
    5. Michel Wedel & Rik Pieters, 2015. "The Buffer Effect: The Role of Color When Advertising Exposures Are Brief and Blurred," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(1), pages 134-143, January.
    6. Ryan Rahinel & Noelle M. Nelson, 2016. "When Brand Logos Describe the Environment: Design Instability and the Utility of Safety-Oriented Products," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(3), pages 478-496.
    7. Hee Jin Kim & Jung Min Jang, 2018. "The Easier the Better: How Processing Fluency Influences Self-Efficacy and Behavioral Intention in Pro-Social Campaign Advertising," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(12), pages 1-14, December.
    8. Shekhar Suraj Kushe & Raveendran P.T., 2015. "Promises of silent salesman to the FMCG industry: an investigation using linear discriminant analysis approach," Management & Marketing, Sciendo, vol. 10(4), pages 304-315, December.
    9. Xuhong Ye & Xixian Peng & Xinwei Wang & Hock-Hai Teo, 2020. "Developing and Testing a Theoretical Path Model of Web Page Impression Formation and Its Consequence," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 31(3), pages 929-949, September.
    10. Angie Chung & Dennis F. Kinsey, 2019. "An Examination of Consumers’ Subjective Views that Affect the Favorability of Organizational Logos: An Exploratory Study Using Q Methodology," Corporate Reputation Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 22(3), pages 89-100, August.
    11. Xixi Li & J. J. Po-An Hsieh & Arun Rai, 2013. "Motivational Differences Across Post-Acceptance Information System Usage Behaviors: An Investigation in the Business Intelligence Systems Context," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 24(3), pages 659-682, September.
    12. Louie, Therese A., 2005. "Hindsight bias and outcome-consistent thoughts when observing and making service provider decisions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 88-95, September.
    13. Varsha Jain & Subhadip Roy & Adwita Pant, 2013. "Effect of colour and relative product size (RPS) on consumer attitudes," Transnational Marketing Journal, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 1(1), pages 41-58, October.
    14. Pitt, Leyland & Parent, Michael & Berthon, Pierre & Steyn, Peter G., 2010. "Event sponsorship and ambush marketing: Lessons from the Beijing Olympics," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 281-290, May.
    15. Kim, Jungkeun & Spence, Mark T. & Marshall, Roger, 2018. "The Color of Choice: The Influence of Presenting Product Information in Color on the Compromise Effect," Journal of Retailing, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 167-185.
    16. Chebat, Jean-Charles & Morrin, Maureen, 2007. "Colors and cultures: Exploring the effects of mall decor on consumer perceptions," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 189-196, March.
    17. Orth, Ulrich R. & Hoffmann, Stefan & Nickel, Kristina, 2019. "Moral decoupling feels good and makes buying counterfeits easy," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 117-125.
    18. Schoormans, Jan P. L. & Robben, Henry S. J., 1997. "The effect of new package design on product attention, categorization and evaluation," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 271-287, April.
    19. Nima Y. Jalali & Purushottam Papatla, 2016. "The palette that stands out: Color compositions of online curated visual UGC that attracts higher consumer interaction," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 353-384, December.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:jconrs:v:22:y:1995:i:2:p:121-38. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.