Does Adoption of Pharmaceutical Innovation Respond to Changes in the Regulatory Environment?
This paper investigates how regulation impinged on the launch strategies of international pharmaceutical corporations for new molecules across the main OECD markets between 1960–2008. Comprehensive IMS data is used to analyze the international diffusion of 845 molecules from 14 different anatomic therapeutic categories using non-parametric survival analysis. The paper focuses on two main regulatory changes that substantially reshaped the barriers to entry: the U.S. Hatch-Waxman Act in 1984, and the establishment of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 1995. We find that legal transaction costs have a significant impact on timing of launch. Stringent market authorization requirements for new pharmaceutical products in the United States after 1962 resulted in a significant U.S. drug lag in the introduction of pharmaceutical innovation vis-à-vis Europe from 1960–1984. However, financial incentives stemming from the 1984 Hatch-Waxman Act proved effective in closing this lag. A more streamlined EMA regulatory approval process has reduced barriers to entry in Europe, thereby enabling quicker diffusion of pharmaceutical products, yet a marked pattern of delay in the adoption of innovation is still evident due to local differences in pricing regulations. Any new molecule launch strategically takes place first in higher-priced European Union (EU) markets as a result of the threat of arbitrage and price dependency across EU Member States. Copyright 2012, Oxford University Press.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 34 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, UK|
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: 01865 267 985
Web page: http://aepp.oxfordjournals.org/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.oup.co.uk/journals|
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:apecpp:v:34:y:2012:i:3:p:531-553. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.