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Sustainable Tourism And Its Forms - A Theoretical Approach


  • Bac Dorin

    () (University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics)


From the second half of the twentieth century, the importance of the tourism industry to the world economy continued to grow, reaching today impressive figures: receipts of almost $ 1,000 billion and direct employment for over 70 million people (WTTC 2012), without taking into account the multiplier effect (according to the same statistics of WTTC, if considering the multiplier effect, the values are: $ 5,990 billion in tourism receipts, and 253.5 million jobs). We can say that tourism: has a higher capacity to generate and distribute incomes compared to other sectors; has a high multiplier effect; determines a high level of consumption of varied products and services. In this context, voices began to emerge, which presented the problems and challenges generated by the tourism activity. Many regions are facing real problems generated by tourism entrepreneurs and tourists who visit the community. Therefore, at the end of the last century, there were authors who sought to define a new form of tourism, which eliminated the negative impacts and increased the positive ones. As a generic term they used alternative tourism, but because of the ambiguity of the term, they tried to find a more precise term, which would define the concept easier. Thus emerged: ecotourism, rural tourism, Pro Poor Tourism etc.. All these forms have been introduced under the umbrella concept of sustainable tourism. In the present paper we will take a theoretical approach, in order to present some forms of sustainable tourism. During our research we covered the ideas and concepts promoted by several authors and academics but also some international organizations with focus on tourism. We considered these forms of tourism, as they respect all the rules of sustainable tourism and some of them have great potential to grow in both developed and emerging countries. The forms of sustainable tourism we identified are: ecotourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism. In the second part of this paper we presented both the pros and the cons of each of the identified forms.

Suggested Citation

  • Bac Dorin, 2013. "Sustainable Tourism And Its Forms - A Theoretical Approach," Annals of Faculty of Economics, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1(1), pages 759-767, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:ora:journl:v:1:y:2013:i:1:p:759-767

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    sustainable tourism; ecotourism; slow tourism; pro poor tourism;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth


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