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Evidence of Returns to Education Among Roma in Central and Eastern Europe and Their Policy Implications


  • Susanne Milcher

    (United Nations Development Programme, Regional Centre Bratislava, Slovakia)

  • Katarína Zigová

    (United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria.)


In this paper we analyze specific educational issues faced by Roma households using data from the UNDP/ILO survey conducted in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia in 2001. Roma situation is characterized by poverty, low educational achievements, and consequently limited employment opportunities. We believe that the core of this trap is insufficient education, nonpreparedness for entry into the labormarket of amarket economy. This is demonstrated by the existence of vital returns to education estimated for Roma households throughout the region. The patterns are similar over the whole region and hence the need for a systematic and common education policy of Roma is both necessary and beneficial.

Suggested Citation

  • Susanne Milcher & Katarína Zigová, 2005. "Evidence of Returns to Education Among Roma in Central and Eastern Europe and Their Policy Implications," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 3(1), pages 51-69.
  • Handle: RePEc:mgt:youmgt:v:3:y:2005:i:1:p:51-69

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    Cited by:

    1. Kumo, Kazuhiro, 2015. "Research on Poverty in Transition Economies: A Meta-analysis on Changes in the Determinants of Poverty," RRC Working Paper Series 51, Russian Research Center, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.

    More about this item


    returns to education; Roma minority; poverty; labour market;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials


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