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Money Creation and the State : A Critical Assessment of Chartalism

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  • CLAUDE GNOS
  • LOUIS-PHILIPPE ROCHON

Abstract

The article discusses various issues related to money creation and the state. Chartalists believe that attempts at separating the central bank's and the treasury's functions is merely confused discussion. Indeed, as economist L. Wray clearly states in response to previous critiques, it should be obvious, but it usually does not appear to be so that central bank liabilities do not differ in any significant degree from treasury liabilities; in other words, they can treat both as essentially high powered money or liabilities of the state. In this sense, Wray proposes to simply consolidate the central bank and the treasury, calling the conglomerate the State, and combine treasury and central bank liabilities into a high-powered money or fiat money. This is precisely the crucial point that we have chosen to question here with reference to bookkeeping and central bank practices. In many countries law from directly financing state deficits has prohibited the central bank. Treasuries have to sell bonds to commercial banks, which in their turn may sell them to the central bank to obtain high-powered money.
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Suggested Citation

  • Claude Gnos & Louis-Philippe Rochon, 2002. "Money Creation and the State : A Critical Assessment of Chartalism," International Journal of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(3), pages 41-57.
  • Handle: RePEc:mes:ijpoec:v:32:y:2002:i:3:p:41-57
    DOI: 10.1080/08911916.2002.11042881
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    Cited by:

    1. Sergio Cesaratto, 2016. "La financiación inicial y final en el circuito monetario y la teoría de la demanda efectiva," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 18(35), pages 47-78, July-Dece.
    2. Eric Tymoigne & L. Randall Wray, 2013. "Modern Money Theory 101: A Reply to Critics," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_778, Levy Economics Institute.
    3. Georgina M. Gómez & Paolo Dini, 2016. "Making sense of a crank case: monetary diversity in Argentina (1999–2003)," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(5), pages 1421-1437.
    4. Louis-Philippe Rochon & Sergio Rossi, 2013. "Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views," Review of Keynesian Economics, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 1(2), pages 210-229, January.
    5. Sergio Cesaratto, 2017. "Initial and Final Finance in the Monetary Circuit and the Theory of Effective Demand," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(2), pages 228-258, May.
    6. Robert S. Kravchuk, 2020. "Post‐Keynesian Public Budgeting & Finance: Assessing Contributions From Modern Monetary Theory," Public Budgeting & Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 95-123, September.

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