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European Integration and Position of Women in Business Enterprise Sector (BES)


  • Zuzana Maliková

    () (Techical University of Košice, Faculty of Economics)


The purpose of this article is to describe gender gap in a field of research and development (abbr. R&D) and to investigate the changes after entry to EU. The research on gender gap is mainly focused on business enterprise sector. The paper presents comparative and descriptive statistics by using a secondary data and information across a period between 2004 and 2007. First part presents an overview of R&D personnel and R&D expenditures in each country. Consequently it compares three groups of countries. Next part investigates the honeypot indicators and the correlations between personnel and expenses on R&D. Due to using different base for calculation of personnel, diverse results of correlation were achieved. The results confirmed that statement mentioned in introduction is still valid after 6 years and entry to EU. The last part deals with the main findings regarding women researchers in business enterprise sector across European countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Zuzana Maliková, 2010. "European Integration and Position of Women in Business Enterprise Sector (BES)," Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, Institute of Economic Sciences, issue 3-4, pages 7-17.
  • Handle: RePEc:ibg:jwejou:y:2010:i:3-4:p:7-17

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    More about this item


    generation gap; personnel of R&D; expenses on R&D; comparative study; honeypot indicator; correlations;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • M12 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe


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