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Nondestructive Evaluation of Historic Hakka Rammed Earth Structures

Author

Listed:
  • Ruifeng Liang

    () (Constructed Facilities Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA)

  • Gangarao Hota

    () (Constructed Facilities Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA)

  • Ying Lei

    () (School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China)

  • Yanhao Li

    () (School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China)

  • Daniel Stanislawski

    () (Constructed Facilities Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA)

  • Yongqiang Jiang

    () (School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China)

Abstract

The in-service Hakka rammed earth buildings, in the Fujian Province of China, are unique in design and performance. Their UNESCO’s inscription as World Heritage sites recognizes their artistic, cultural, social and historic significance. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation of the United States, the authors have examined the engineering values of these buildings in terms of comfortable living at low energy consumption, sustainability and durability. The objective of this study was to better understand the thermo-mechanical and aging responses of Hakka earth buildings under thermal and earthquake loads through nondestructive field evaluation, including full-scale roof truss and floor testing, laboratory testing of field samples and finite element modeling. This paper presents our observations and findings from the field nondestructive evaluations with emphasis on the integrity of the rammed earth outer walls and inner wood structures, as well as the thermal comfort of living in these buildings, while a second paper presents the results from the material characterization of field samples and the structural responses of a representative building under earthquake induced loads through finite element analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Ruifeng Liang & Gangarao Hota & Ying Lei & Yanhao Li & Daniel Stanislawski & Yongqiang Jiang, 2013. "Nondestructive Evaluation of Historic Hakka Rammed Earth Structures," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-18, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:5:y:2013:i:1:p:298-315:d:23003
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    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:10:p:1904-:d:115953 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Hakka Tulou; rammed earth; earth structures; load test; thermal comfort; NDE; nondestructive evaluation; ultrasonic; rebound hammer; Infrared thermography;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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