IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges


  • Angel Alejandro Juan

    (Computer Science Department, Internet Interdisciplinary Institute, Open University of Catalonia, 08018 Barcelona, Spain)

  • Carlos Alberto Mendez

    (Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnológico para la Industria Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina)

  • Javier Faulin

    (Statistics and Operations Research Department, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain)

  • Jesica De Armas

    (Computer Science Department, Internet Interdisciplinary Institute, Open University of Catalonia, 08018 Barcelona, Spain)

  • Scott Erwin Grasman

    (Industrial and Systems Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA)


Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a) environmental-related issues; and (b) strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems.

Suggested Citation

  • Angel Alejandro Juan & Carlos Alberto Mendez & Javier Faulin & Jesica De Armas & Scott Erwin Grasman, 2016. "Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges," Energies, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-21, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2016:i:2:p:86-:d:63082

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Adrian Serrano-Hernandez & Aitor Ballano & Javier Faulin, 2021. "Selecting Freight Transportation Modes in Last-Mile Urban Distribution in Pamplona (Spain): An Option for Drone Delivery in Smart Cities," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-17, August.
    2. Shen, Zuo-Jun Max & Feng, Bo & Mao, Chao & Ran, Lun, 2019. "Optimization models for electric vehicle service operations: A literature review," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 462-477.
    3. Jose L. Arroyo & Ángel Felipe & M. Teresa Ortuño & Gregorio Tirado, 0. "Effectiveness of carbon pricing policies for promoting urban freight electrification: analysis of last mile delivery in Madrid," Central European Journal of Operations Research, Springer;Slovak Society for Operations Research;Hungarian Operational Research Society;Czech Society for Operations Research;Österr. Gesellschaft für Operations Research (ÖGOR);Slovenian Society Informatika - Section for Operational Research;Croatian Operational Research Society, vol. 0, pages 1-24.
    4. Bram Kin & Meike Hopman & Hans Quak, 2021. "Different Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicle Fleets in Urban Freight Transport," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(23), pages 1-18, November.
    5. Eskandarpour, Majid & Ouelhadj, Djamila & Hatami, Sara & Juan, Angel A. & Khosravi, Banafsheh, 2019. "Enhanced multi-directional local search for the bi-objective heterogeneous vehicle routing problem with multiple driving ranges," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 277(2), pages 479-491.
    6. Min-Chun Yu & Chia-Nan Wang & Nguyen-Nhu-Y Ho, 2016. "A Grey Forecasting Approach for the Sustainability Performance of Logistics Companies," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(9), pages 1-18, August.
    7. Sergio Maria Patella & Gianluca Grazieschi & Valerio Gatta & Edoardo Marcucci & Stefano Carrese, 2020. "The Adoption of Green Vehicles in Last Mile Logistics: A Systematic Review," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(1), pages 1-29, December.
    8. Leggieri, Valeria & Haouari, Mohamed, 2017. "A practical solution approach for the green vehicle routing problem," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 97-112.
    9. Ushnik Mukherjee & Azadeh Maroufmashat & Apurva Narayan & Ali Elkamel & Michael Fowler, 2017. "A Stochastic Programming Approach for the Planning and Operation of a Power to Gas Energy Hub with Multiple Energy Recovery Pathways," Energies, MDPI, vol. 10(7), pages 1-27, June.
    10. Canan G. Corlu & Rocio de la Torre & Adrian Serrano-Hernandez & Angel A. Juan & Javier Faulin, 2020. "Optimizing Energy Consumption in Transportation: Literature Review, Insights, and Research Opportunities," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(5), pages 1-33, March.
    11. Hiermann, Gerhard & Hartl, Richard F. & Puchinger, Jakob & Vidal, Thibaut, 2019. "Routing a mix of conventional, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 272(1), pages 235-248.
    12. Lixing Wang & Zhenning Wu & Changyong Cao, 2021. "Integrated Optimization of Routing and Energy Management for Electric Vehicles in Delivery Scheduling," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(6), pages 1-17, March.
    13. Leandro do C. Martins & Rafael D. Tordecilla & Juliana Castaneda & Angel A. Juan & Javier Faulin, 2021. "Electric Vehicle Routing, Arc Routing, and Team Orienteering Problems in Sustainable Transportation," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-30, August.
    14. Lukas Hardi & Ulrich Wagner, 2019. "Grocery Delivery or Customer Pickup—Influences on Energy Consumption and CO 2 Emissions in Munich," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(3), pages 1-20, January.
    15. Rocio de la Torre & Canan G. Corlu & Javier Faulin & Bhakti S. Onggo & Angel A. Juan, 2021. "Simulation, Optimization, and Machine Learning in Sustainable Transportation Systems: Models and Applications," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(3), pages 1-21, February.
    16. Nader A. B. Al Theeb & Ahmad Eyad Taha & Mohammad Yousef Al Atari, 2019. "Selection of Electric Vehicles for Public Use Using AHP," Journal of ICT, Design, Engineering and Technological Science, Juhriyansyah Dalle, vol. 3(2), pages 25-30.
    17. Erfan Ghorbani & Mahdi Alinaghian & Gevork. B. Gharehpetian & Sajad Mohammadi & Guido Perboli, 2020. "A Survey on Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Routing Problem and a Proposal of Its Classification," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(21), pages 1-71, October.
    18. Oscar Lopez Jaramillo & Joel Rinebold & Michael Kuby & Scott Kelley & Darren Ruddell & Rhian Stotts & Aimee Krafft & Elizabeth Wentz, 2021. "Hydrogen Station Location Planning via Geodesign in Connecticut: Comparing Optimization Models and Structured Stakeholder Collaboration," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(22), pages 1-26, November.
    19. Khalid Aljohani & Russell G. Thompson, 2018. "A Stakeholder-Based Evaluation of the Most Suitable and Sustainable Delivery Fleet for Freight Consolidation Policies in the Inner-City Area," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(1), pages 1-27, December.
    20. Xiaohong Jiang & Xiucheng Guo, 2020. "Evaluation of Performance and Technological Characteristics of Battery Electric Logistics Vehicles: China as a Case Study," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(10), pages 1-23, May.
    21. Tharsis Teoh & Oliver Kunze & Chee-Chong Teo & Yiik Diew Wong, 2018. "Decarbonisation of Urban Freight Transport Using Electric Vehicles and Opportunity Charging," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(9), pages 1-20, September.
    22. Zamar, David S. & Gopaluni, Bhushan & Sokhansanj, Shahab, 2017. "Optimization of sawmill residues collection for bioenergy production," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 202(C), pages 487-495.
    23. Ma, Fangwu & Yang, Yu & Wang, Jiawei & Liu, Zhenze & Li, Jinhang & Nie, Jiahong & Shen, Yucheng & Wu, Liang, 2019. "Predictive energy-saving optimization based on nonlinear model predictive control for cooperative connected vehicles platoon with V2V communication," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 189(C).
    24. José Ruiz-Meza & Jairo R. Montoya-Torres, 2021. "Tourist trip design with heterogeneous preferences, transport mode selection and environmental considerations," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 305(1), pages 227-249, October.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2016:i:2:p:86-:d:63082. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.