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Empirical analysis of the relationship between total consumption-GDP ratio and per capita income for different metals: The cases of Brazil, China and India


  • Antonio Focacci


Purpose - The main purpose of the paper is to propose an empirical analysis of the relationship between total consumption of different key metals (aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc) and per capita income of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different perspectives from in the past. Design/methodology/approach - The research is carried out investigating a double aim. Mainly, whether the environmental Kuznets' Curve (EKC) model related to material consumption (and hence “renamed” as material Kuznets' Curve) could be used – in empirical terms – as a possible explanatory pattern of past and current trends for these three important countries. Second, whether the observable trends in industrialised countries is similar to those already implemented in the developing ones. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the issue and regarding general statements, the specific cases for Brazil, China and India are proposed. Findings - Results do not closely fit the theoretical expectations but, as has already been seen for industrialised countries in previous research work, there is a prevailing trend in the lowering of material intensities with rising per-capita income levels. Originality/value - Without pretending to be exhaustive, this paper can be useful in improving the understanding of such developing economies, considering features not yet included in the international literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonio Focacci, 2007. "Empirical analysis of the relationship between total consumption-GDP ratio and per capita income for different metals: The cases of Brazil, China and India," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 34(9), pages 612-636, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eme:ijsepp:v:34:y:2007:i:9:p:612-636

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    Cited by:

    1. Fernandez, Viviana, 2018. "Mineral commodity consumption and intensity of use re-assessed," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1-18.
    2. Focacci, Antonio, 2009. "Residential plants investment appraisal subsequent to the new supporting photovoltaic economic mechanism in Italy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(9), pages 2710-2715, December.
    3. Jaunky, Vishal Chandr, 2012. "Is there a material Kuznets curve for aluminium? evidence from rich countries," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 296-307.
    4. Wårell, Linda, 2014. "Trends and developments in long-term steel demand – The intensity-of-use hypothesis revisited," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 134-143.


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