IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Apertura comercial, desigualdad y pobreza. Reseña de los enfoques metodológicos, el estado del conocimiento y la asignatura pendiente


  • de Hoyos, Rafael

    (Secretaría de Educación Pública, México)

  • Lustig, Nora

    (George Washington University y El Colegio de México)


This paper surveys the recent literature on the methodologies that have been used to evaluate the distributive and poverty effects of trade liberalization in Latin America. Our survey classifies the large number of papers on the subject according to the welfare measure they use: inequality (on wages and household income) or poverty. Our survey shows that a sound methodological approach evaluating the welfare effects of trade liberalization should take into account: the degree of tariff to price transmission, all income sources (not only wages), employment effects, gender and regional heterogeneity of trade’s impact, and second-order as well as general equilibrium effects. Two methodologies represent the latest efforts in this direction. (1) Income generation models with an explicit relationship between changes in tariff and changes in household real income (Porto, 2007), this methodology is capable of testing the different transmission channels linking trade policy and inequality and poverty. (2)The Macro-Micro approach (Bourguingon et. al, 2008) which combines a CGE with a micro-simulation model evaluates the welfare effects of trade policy taking into account general equilibrium effects. These two approaches can be combined to get the short- and long-term welfare effects of trade policy, respectively.// El estudio presenta una reseña de los principales enfoques metodológicos que se han utilizado para evaluar el impacto de la apertura comercial sobre la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza en América Latina. La gran cantidad de estudios en la materia fueron clasificados según el indicador de bienestar utilizado: desigualdad (salarial e ingresos de los hogares) o pobreza. La reseña demuestra que un enfoque metodológico con el suficiente rigor analítico debe tomar en cuenta: el grado de transmisión de cambios aranceles a cambios precios domésticos, todas las fuentes de ingreso, posibles efectos en el empleo, consecuencias diferenciadas en hombres y mujeres y en distintas regiones geográficas, y efectos de segundo orden, así como también efectos de equilibrio general. Dos metodologías representan los esfuerzos más recientes en esta dirección: i) los modelos de generación de ingreso del hogar (Porto, 2007), los cuales vinculan de manera implícita los cambios arancelarios con los cambios en el ingreso de los hogares y son capaces de evaluar –de modo empírico– los distintos canales de transmisión entre la política comercial y la desigualdad y la pobreza, y ii) el enfoque macro-micro (Bourguingon et al, 2008) que combina modelos de equilibrio general con modelos de microsimulación y permite evaluar la política comercial tomando en cuenta los efectos de equilibrio general. Estos dos enfoques pueden ser utilizados de manera complementaria para medir los efectos distributivos y de pobreza provenientes de la política comercial en el corto y el largo plazos, respectivamente.

Suggested Citation

  • de Hoyos, Rafael & Lustig, Nora, 2009. "Apertura comercial, desigualdad y pobreza. Reseña de los enfoques metodológicos, el estado del conocimiento y la asignatura pendiente," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(302), pages 283-328, abril-jun.
  • Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:76:y:2009:i:302:p:283-328 DOI:

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sarno, Lucio, 1999. "Adjustment Costs and Nonlinear Dynamics in the Demand for Money: Italy, 1861-1991," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(2), pages 155-177, April.
    2. Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
    3. Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
    4. Arrau, Patricio & De Gregorio, Jose & Reinhart, Carmen M. & Wickham, Peter, 1995. "The demand for money in developing countries: Assessing the role of financial innovation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 317-340, April.
    5. Rapach, David E. & Wohar, Mark E., 2002. "Testing the monetary model of exchange rate determination: new evidence from a century of data," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 359-385, December.
    6. de Brouwer, Gordon & Ericsson, Neil R, 1998. "Modeling Inflation in Australia," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(4), pages 433-449, October.
    7. Ball, Laurence, 2001. "Another look at long-run money demand," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 31-44, February.
    8. Steven B. Kamin, 1997. "A multi-country comparison of the linkages between inflation and exchange rate competitiveness," BIS Working Papers 45, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    10. Hansen, Bruce E., 1992. "Testing for parameter instability in linear models," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 517-533, August.
    11. Mark Holmes, 2008. "Real Exchange Rate Stationarity in Latin America and Relative Purchasing Power Parity: A Regime Switching Approach," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 261-275, April.
    12. Groen, Jan J. J., 2000. "The monetary exchange rate model as a long-run phenomenon," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 299-319, December.
    13. David F. Hendry, 2001. "Modelling UK inflation, 1875-1991," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 255-275.
    14. Ralf Becker & Walter Enders & Stan Hurn, 2001. "Modelling Structural Change in Money Demand Using a Fourier-Series Approximation," Research Paper Series 67, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    15. Gregory, Allan W. & Hansen, Bruce E., 1996. "Residual-based tests for cointegration in models with regime shifts," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 99-126, January.
    16. Arize, Augustine C. & Malindretos, John & Shwiff, Steven S., 1999. "Structural breaks, cointegration, and speed of adjustment Evidence from 12 LDCs money demand," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 399-420, November.
    17. Lee, Daniel Y., 1999. "Purchasing power parity and dynamic error correction: Evidence from Asia Pacific economies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 199-212, June.
    18. Lothian, James R & Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Real Exchange Rate Behavior: The Recent Float from the Perspective of the Past Two Centuries," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(3), pages 488-509, June.
    19. Gregory, Allan W. & Hansen, Bruce E., 1996. "Residual-based tests for cointegration in models with regime shifts," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 99-126, January.
    20. Johansen, Søren & Juselius, Katarina, 1992. "Testing structural hypotheses in a multivariate cointegration analysis of the PPP and the UIP for UK," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 211-244.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-03 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Sámano, Claudia & Szekely, Miguel, 2012. "Did Trade Openness Affect Income Distribution in Latin America? Evidence for the Years 1980?2010," WIDER Working Paper Series 003, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    More about this item


    trade liberalization; income distribution; poverty; Apertura comercial; desigualdad; pobreza;

    JEL classification:

    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:76:y:2009:i:302:p:283-328. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rosa María González Mejía). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.