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Reforma comercial y productividad en Chile. Una mirada 15 años después

Listed author(s):
  • Álvarez, Roberto

    (Departamento de Economía de la Universidad de Chile)

  • Fuentes, Rodrigo

    (Banco Central de Chile)

This paper analyzes the evolution of firm productivity in the Chilean manufacturing industry, during the post trade reform period (1979-1994). Changes in productivity for each sector are defined as technological changes and variation in technical efficiency. The econometric technique applied is the stochastic production frontier technique. This article makes two contributions to the previous literature. First, it analyzes a longer period of time after the trade reform to allow for adjustments by the firms to the new economic conditions. Second, it uses electric power and petroleum consumption as a measure of capital services, instead of using capital stock estimation. The results shows that 15 years after the trade liberalization, more than 50 percent of industrial sectors experienced an increase in technical efficiency and none of them show a statistically significant decrease in technical efficiency. In addition, one third of the sectors within the manufacturing industry show a statistically significant technological change.// Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la productividad de las empresas en la industria manufacturera chilena, durante el periodo posterior a la reforma comercial (1979-1994). Con fronteras estocásticas de producción por empresa en cada industria, se mide la productividad diferenciando entre eficiencia y cambio tecnológico. Este artículo se diferencia de otros en el tema en dos aspectos. En primer lugar, se realiza un análisis de un periodo más largo, para permitir a las empresas ajustarse a las nuevas condiciones económicas. En segundo lugar, se incluye una aproximación diferente a la variable servicios del factor capital, al utilizar el consumo de energía eléctrica y de derivados del petróleo. Los resultados señalan que 15 años después de la reforma comercial en Chile, más de 50% de los sectores industriales experimentaron aumentos en eficiencia y ninguno muestra una disminución. Por otra parte, sólo un tercio de las industrias muestra cambio tecnológico estadísticamente significativo.

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Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

Volume (Year): LXX (1) (2003)
Issue (Month): 277 (enero-marzo)
Pages: 21-41

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Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:70:y:2003:i:277:p:21-41
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