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Black Market Rates and Official Rates in Armenia: Evidence from Causality Tests in Alternative Regimes


  • Nicholas Apergis

    () (Department of Economics, University of Ioannina)


This study investigates the causal relationship between the official and the black (market) rate in the foreign exchange market of Armenia, following the initiation of an independent foreign exchange market, after the country seceded from the Soviet Union and from the ruble zone in 1993, over three alternative time periods (regimes). The results suggest the presence of a causal relationship between the two rates with the course depending upon the period under investigation.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicholas Apergis, 2000. "Black Market Rates and Official Rates in Armenia: Evidence from Causality Tests in Alternative Regimes," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 335-344, Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:26:y:2000:i:3:p:335-344

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Card, David & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 772-793, September.
    2. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1997. "A Reanalysis of the Effect of the New Jersey Minimum Wage Increase on the Fast-Food Industry with Representative Payroll Data," Working Papers 772, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    3. David Neumark & William Wascher, 1995. "The Effect of New Jersey's Minimum Wage Increase on Fast-Food Employment: A Re-Evaluation Using Payroll Records," NBER Working Papers 5224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mohsen Fardmanesh & Seymour Douglas, 2003. "Foreign Exchange Controls, Fiscal and Monetary Policy, and the Black Market Premium," Working Papers 876, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    2. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Altin Tanku, 2006. "Do the black market and the official exchange rates converge in the long run?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 30(1), pages 57-69, March.
    3. Ira Horowitz, 2007. "If you play well they will come-and vice versa: bidirectional causality in major-league baseball," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(2), pages 93-105.
    4. Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah & Siti Hamizah Mohd & Siew-Voon Soon, 2011. "Purchasing Power Parity and Efficiency of Black Market Exchange Rate in African Countries," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 47(5), pages 52-70, September.
    5. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Goswami, Gour Gobinda, 2004. "Long-run nature of the relationship between the black market and the official exchange rates," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 319-327, September.

    More about this item


    Foreign Exchange;

    JEL classification:

    • P33 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange


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