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The longitudinal effects of social support and hostility on depressive tendencies

  • Heponiemi, Tarja
  • Elovainio, Marko
  • Kivimäki, Mika
  • Pulkki, Laura
  • Puttonen, Sampsa
  • Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
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    This 14-year longitudinal study examined the independent association between perceived social support and the 5-year progression of depressive tendencies while taking into account the potential effects of childhood/adolescent anger and later hostility. From the on-going population based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns", 553 male and 860 female participants responded to a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory in 1992 and 1997. Hostility and perceived social support were assessed by self-rated questionnaires in 1992. Childhood/adolescent anger was assessed by parent-reports in 1983. Our results showed that higher levels of perceived social support were associated with the decrease of depressive tendencies after 5 years and lower levels of depressive tendencies prospectively and after 5 years. This association persisted after adjusting for childhood/adolescent anger and later hostility. In addition, hostility was strongly related to the 5-year increase of depressive tendencies and higher levels of depressive tendencies. Social support may therefore be a long-term protective factor from depression irrespective of personality characteristics, such as hostility and anger.

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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Social Science & Medicine.

    Volume (Year): 63 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 5 (September)
    Pages: 1374-1382

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:63:y:2006:i:5:p:1374-1382
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