IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A community-based assessment of learning disabilities using environmental and contextual risk factors


  • Margai, Florence
  • Henry, Norah


Childhood placement in learning disability (LD) programs in the USA has tripled over the last few decades to 6% of all children enrolled in the public schools today. The revision of educational laws to improve LD testing and reporting guidelines has been credited for these trends. However, some researchers also believe that the increase in LD incidence may be due, in part, to chronic low level exposure to toxicants such as lead, heavy metals, solvents and others chemicals in the physical environment. This study employs the use of geo-statistical methods to explore the potential linkages between these pollution sources and the prevalence rates of LD within an urbanized environment, in the USA. The role of contextual factors such as housing quality, poverty, low parental educational achievement, and other disadvantages are also examined. Using primary data on childhood disabilities for 1997, the LD cases were queried and analyzed to identify the spatial clusters within the community. The neighborhoods within the LD clusters were then compared to other areas in the community on the basis of the environmental and contextual risk factors. The results confirmed that areas of high risk for LD were strongly associated with historically significant sources of lead toxicity and air pollution facilities. Among the socio-economic indicators, the high-risk neighborhoods were characterized by multiple/subdivided housing units, poverty, higher percentage of residents on public assistance and lower adult educational attainment. Taken together, these results suggest the need for a more inclusive multi-disciplinary research on LD that extends beyond the classroom context to the neighborhoods and communities in which these children reside.

Suggested Citation

  • Margai, Florence & Henry, Norah, 2003. "A community-based assessment of learning disabilities using environmental and contextual risk factors," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 1073-1085, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:56:y:2003:i:5:p:1073-1085

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Messer, Lynne C. & Vinikoor, Lisa C. & Laraia, Barbara A. & Kaufman, Jay S. & Eyster, Janet & Holzman, Claudia & Culhane, Jennifer & Elo, Irma & Burke, Jessica G. & O'Campo, Patricia, 2008. "Socioeconomic domains and associations with preterm birth," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 67(8), pages 1247-1257, October.
    2. Vladimir Pozdnyakov & Joseph Glaz & Martin Kulldorff & J. Steele, 2005. "A martingale approach to scan statistics," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 57(1), pages 21-37, March.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:56:y:2003:i:5:p:1073-1085. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.