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Technical note


  • Alnaser, W.e.
  • Al-Attar, R.


Very simple models have been made to estimate the monthly and daily average total, diffuse and beam solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Bahrain. The direct normal solar irradiation has also been measured and modeled using the rotating shadow band pyrometer. The monthly average estimation was found to be more accurate than the daily average, and modeling the direct solar irradiation is the most inaccurate followed by the diffuse; since these two are very susceptible to atmospheric pollution and weather conditions. The highest actually measured monthly average total for direct, diffuse and direct normal solar irradiation was found to be 585, 383, 343 and 716 W m−2, respectively, while the lowest actually measured monthly average values were 373, 242, 96 and 342 W m−2, respectively. The results of the total solar irradiation in four different sites in Bahrain were found to have similar values (the maximum hourly values ranged from 820 to 1000 W m−2 at mid-day in June) which is expected since the area of Bahrain is nearly 700 km2.

Suggested Citation

  • Alnaser, W.e. & Al-Attar, R., 1999. "Technical note," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 417-434.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:18:y:1999:i:3:p:417-434
    DOI: 10.1016/S0960-1481(98)00788-5

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alnaser, W.E. & Almudaifa, H.S., 1992. "Total solar irradiation in Bahrain," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 237-252.
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    1. Marianne Broch & Per M. Koch & Siri Aanstad, "undated". "Nye virkemidler for innovasjon – hva gjøres i andre land?," STEP Report series 200209, The STEP Group, Studies in technology, innovation and economic policy.
    2. Priscilla Albuquerque Tavares & Elaine Toldo Pazello, 2006. "Uma Avaliação Do Programa Bolsa Escola Federal: Focalização E Impacto Na Distribuição De Renda E Pobreza," Anais do XII Seminário sobre a Economia Mineira [Proceedings of the 12th Seminar on the Economy of Minas Gerais],in: João Antonio de Paula & et alli (ed.), Anais do XII Seminário sobre a Economia Mineira [Proceedings of the 12th Seminar on the Economy of Minas Gerais] Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

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