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Theory of analogous force on number sets


  • Canessa, Enrique


A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions px for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering px to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force fx on number sets proportional to (∂px/∂x)T at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this leads to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed.

Suggested Citation

  • Canessa, Enrique, 2003. "Theory of analogous force on number sets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 328(1), pages 44-52.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:328:y:2003:i:1:p:44-52
    DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4371(03)00526-0

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    Cited by:

    1. Ausloos, M. & Herteliu, C. & Ileanu, B., 2015. "Breakdown of Benford’s law for birth data," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 419(C), pages 736-745.
    2. Tariq Ahmad Mir & Marcel Ausloos & Roy Cerqueti, 2014. "Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions," Papers 1410.2890,
    3. David E. A. Giles, 2006. "The Exact Asymptotic Distribution Function of Watson's UN-Squared for Testing Goodness-of-Fit With Circular Discrete Data," Econometrics Working Papers 0607, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    4. David Giles, 2007. "Benford's law and naturally occurring prices in certain ebaY auctions," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 157-161.
    5. David E. Giles, 2012. "Exact Asymptotic Goodness-of-Fit Testing For Discrete Circular Data, With Applications," Econometrics Working Papers 1201, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.


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