IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Are input controls required in individual transferable quota fisheries to address ecosystem based fisheries management objectives?


  • Emery, Timothy J.
  • Green, Bridget S.
  • Gardner, Caleb
  • Tisdell, John


This study examined the use of Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) to effectively manage fishing impacts on all ecosystem components, as required under Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management (EBFM) principles. A consequence of changing from input controls to output-based (catch) management is that the control of the regulating authority tends to be reduced, which may affect the outcomes for ecosystem management. This study reviewed the use of input controls across six fishing methods in 18 ITQ fisheries, which have been independently accredited as ecologically sustainable by the Marine Stewardship Council (12 fisheries) or under Australian environmental legislation for Wildlife Trade Operation (six fisheries). Input controls were retained across a range of ITQ fisheries, with non-selective fisheries such as trawl, gillnet and line employing more input controls than selective fisheries such as purse-seine, pot/trap and dredge. Further case-studies confirmed the widespread and recent use of input controls (spatial and temporal closures) with the aim of managing ecosystem impacts of fishing. The retention of input controls, particularly closures affects the security (quality of title) characteristic of the fishing use right and the theoretical ability of fishers to manage their right for their future benefit. The security characteristic is weakened by closures through loss of access, which undermines industry trust and incentive for long-term decision making. By reducing the security of ITQs, individual fisher incentives and behaviour may separate from societal objectives for sustainability, which was one of the foremost reasons for introducing ITQ management.

Suggested Citation

  • Emery, Timothy J. & Green, Bridget S. & Gardner, Caleb & Tisdell, John, 2012. "Are input controls required in individual transferable quota fisheries to address ecosystem based fisheries management objectives?," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 122-131, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:marpol:v:36:y:2012:i:1:p:122-131

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Weijerman, Mariska & Grace-McCaskey, Cynthia & Grafeld, Shanna L. & Kotowicz, Dawn M. & Oleson, Kirsten L.L. & van Putten, Ingrid E., 2016. "Towards an ecosystem-based approach of Guam's coral reefs: The human dimension," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 8-17.
    2. Burgess, Matthew G. & Carrella, Ernesto & Drexler, Michael & Axtell, Robert L. & Bailey, Richard M. & Watson, James R. & Cabral, Reniel B. & Clemence, Michaela & Costello, Christopher & Dorsett, Chris, 2018. "Opportunities for agent-based modeling in human dimensions of fisheries," SocArXiv gzhm5, Center for Open Science.
    3. Havice, Elizabeth, 2013. "Rights-based management in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean tuna fishery: Economic and environmental change under the Vessel Day Scheme," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 259-267.
    4. Pinkerton, Evelyn, 2015. "The role of moral economy in two British Columbia fisheries: Confronting neoliberal policies," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 410-419.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:marpol:v:36:y:2012:i:1:p:122-131. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.