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Precautionary management of deep-sea mining


  • Halfar, Jochen
  • Fujita, Rodney M.


Interest in deep-sea mining developed in the early 1970s, with a focus on manganese nodules in international waters. Mining may actually occur first, however, on rich polymetallic sulfide deposits associated with hydrothermal vents within exclusive economic zones. Even though mining for polymetallic sulfides may not take place for several years, precautionary performance standards, environmental regulations, and the establishment of Marine Protected Areas may help guide the marine mining industry toward a goal of minimizing environmental impacts. Once substantial investments in prospecting and exploring a potential mining site are made, implementation of environmental regulations may prove to be much more difficult.

Suggested Citation

  • Halfar, Jochen & Fujita, Rodney M., 2002. "Precautionary management of deep-sea mining," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 103-106, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:marpol:v:26:y:2002:i:2:p:103-106

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    Cited by:

    1. Bertram, Christine & Krätschell, Anna & O’Brien, Killian & Brückmann, Warner & Proelss, Alexander & Rehdanz, Katrin, 2011. "Metalliferous sediments in the Atlantis II Deep—Assessing the geological and economic resource potential and legal constraints," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 315-329.
    2. Bertram, Christine & Krätschell, Anna & O'Brien, Killian & Brückmann, Warner & Proelss, Alexander, 2011. "Metalliferous sediments in the Atlantis II Deep: Assessing the geological and economic resource potential and legal constraints," Kiel Working Papers 1688, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).


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