IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

A multi-round generalization of the traveling tournament problem and its application to Japanese baseball

Listed author(s):
  • Hoshino, Richard
  • Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi
Registered author(s):

    In a double round-robin tournament involving n teams, every team plays 2(n - 1) games, with one home game and one away game against each of the other n - 1 teams. Given a symmetric n by n matrix representing the distances between each pair of home cities, the traveling tournament problem (TTP) seeks to construct an optimal schedule that minimizes the sum total of distances traveled by the n teams as they move from city to city, subject to several natural constraints to ensure balance and fairness. In the TTP, the number of rounds is set at r = 2. In this paper, we generalize the TTP to multiple rounds (r = 2k, for any k [greater-or-equal, slanted] 1) and present an algorithm that converts the problem to finding the shortest path in a directed graph, enabling us to apply Dijkstra's Algorithm to generate the optimal multi-round schedule. We apply our shortest-path algorithm to optimize the league schedules for Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) in Japan, where two leagues of n = 6 teams play 40 sets of three intra-league games over r = 8 rounds. Our optimal schedules for the Pacific and Central Leagues achieve a 25% reduction in total traveling distance compared to the 2010 NPB schedule, implying the potential for considerable savings in terms of time, money, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal European Journal of Operational Research.

    Volume (Year): 215 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (December)
    Pages: 481-497

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:215:y:2011:i:2:p:481-497
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    in new window

    1. Lim, A. & Rodrigues, B. & Zhang, X., 2006. "A simulated annealing and hill-climbing algorithm for the traveling tournament problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 174(3), pages 1459-1478, November.
    2. Rasmussen, Rasmus V. & Trick, Michael A., 2008. "Round robin scheduling - a survey," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 188(3), pages 617-636, August.
    3. Rasmussen, Rasmus V. & Trick, Michael A., 2007. "A Benders approach for the constrained minimum break problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 177(1), pages 198-213, February.
    4. Irnich, Stefan, 2010. "A new branch-and-price algorithm for the traveling tournament problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 204(2), pages 218-228, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:215:y:2011:i:2:p:481-497. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.