IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Social and economic problems in Cuba during the crisis and subsequent recovery


  • Mesa-Lago, Carmelo


Up to 1989, social policy in Cuba achieved very notable advances in education, health, social security, employment and income distribution. The collapse of the socialist bloc and other internal and external factors, however, gave rise to a severe crisis, which reached its bottom in 1993 and led to a deterioration in almost all the social indicators. The modest market-oriented reforms introduced in 1993-1996 generated a partial recovery but were later interrupted and have been reversed since 2003. The social indicators improved after 1994, but in 2003 some of them had still not regained their 1989 levels and poverty and inequality had increased. This article evaluates the economic and especially the social evolution of Cuba between 1989 and 2004, on the basis of Cuban statistics and publications, ECLAC documents, and a recent study of economic and social aspects in 1997-2002 jointly published by ECLAC, the National Economic Research Institute of Cuba, and the United Nations Development Programme./

Suggested Citation

  • Mesa-Lago, Carmelo, 2005. "Social and economic problems in Cuba during the crisis and subsequent recovery," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecr:col070:11099
    Note: Includes bibliography

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Carmelo Mesa-Lago, 2009. "Economic and Social Balance of 50 Years of Cuban Revolution," Annual Proceedings, The Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, vol. 19.
    2. Elisa Botella-Rodríguez, 2014. "Success and failures of inward-looking development in Cuba (1990-2008): opportunities and problems for small farmers," Documentos de Trabajo de la Sociedad Española de Historia Agraria 1406, Sociedad Española de Historia Agraria.
    3. Laura J. Enríquez, 2010. "The Cuban alternative to neoliberalism: Linkages between local production and tourism after 1990," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 9(2), pages 92-112, July.
    4. Elisa Botella-Rodríguez, 2015. "Best practices for small farmers in Cuba and Costa Rica in the Global Era (1990-2008)," Historia Agraria. Revista de Agricultura e Historia Rural, Sociedad Española de Historia Agraria, issue 67, pages 179-215, december.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecr:col070:11099. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Biblioteca CEPAL (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.