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Niedriger Leitzins: eine Chance in der Euro-Schuldenkrise

Author

Listed:
  • Marius Kokert
  • Dorothea Schäfer
  • Andreas Stephan

Abstract

Member states of the euro area have been struggling with the legacies of the severe financial and economic crisis for four years now. But debt ratios are still rising. Negative primary balances, low growth, and low inflation do not allow for a recovery similar to the one in the US after the Second World War. Between 1946 and 1953, the US was able to almost halve its debt with no haircuts. The crisis countries of the euro area were able to "buy time" with bailout packages and low interest rates. But as long as the other influencing factors are not developing more positively, it remains uncertain whether the current stabilization of the euro debt crisis is sustainable. The ECB's low interest rate policy undoubtedly offers some relief in this situation. First, the interest burden for most countries in the euro area has declined in recent years. This effect has tended to stifle increases in the debt ratio. Second, low interest rates strengthen the economy. In turn, this increases government tax revenue and improves the primary balance. Low interest rates have also played an important role in driving down the debt ratio in the US. At the moment they appear to be the only lever in the euro area with which to make euro area countries' debt more sustainable. What matters now is that they seize this opportunity. Seit vier Jahren kämpfen die Staaten des Euroraums gegen die Hinterlassenschaften der schweren Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrise an. Aber noch immer steigen die Schuldenquoten. Für die Krisenstaaten des Euroraums wurde zwar mit Rettungspaketen und Niedrigzinsen "Zeit erkauft". Aber solange sich die anderen Einflussgrößen nicht positiver entwickeln, bleibt es ungewiss, ob die momentane Beruhigung der Euro-Verschuldungskrise nachhaltig ist. Zweifelsfrei stellt in dieser Situation die Niedrigzinspolitik der EZB eine Erleichterung dar. Zum einen ist die Zinslast für die meisten Eurostaaten in den letzten Jahren zurückgegangen. Dieser Effekt dämpft tendenziell das Wachstum der Schuldenquote. Zum anderen stärken die niedrigen Zinsen die Wirtschaft. Dies wiederum erhöht die Steuereinnahmen des Staates und verbessert den Primärsaldo. Niedrigzinsen haben auch bei der Rückführung der Schuldenquote in den USA eine große Rolle gespielt. Zwischen 1946 und 1953 konnten die USA ihren Schuldenstand ohne Schuldenschnitt fast halbieren. Negative Primärsalden, niedrige Wachstumsraten und die niedrige Inflationsrate lassen dies in der Euro-Schuldenkrise jedoch nicht zu. Deshalb scheinen Niedrigzinsen im Moment der einzige Hebel zu sein, mit dem die Schulden tragfähiger gemacht werden können. Nun kommt es darauf an, dass die Eurostaaten die Chance auch ergreifen.

Suggested Citation

  • Marius Kokert & Dorothea Schäfer & Andreas Stephan, 2014. "Niedriger Leitzins: eine Chance in der Euro-Schuldenkrise," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 81(7), pages 115-126.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwob:81-7-1
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    sovereign debt; financial crisis; history of national debt; financial markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
    • N20 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - General, International, or Comparative

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