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Der Einfluss von Kindererziehungszeiten und Mütterrenten auf Alterseinkommen von Müttern in Europa

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  • Katja Möhring

Abstract

Pension care entitlements are believed to be highly relevant for the reduction of gender inequality in pension income. Almost all European countries have implemented care entitlements within their mostly earnings-related public pension schemes. This raises the question of what actual effect these benefits have: can they reduce the “pension penalty of caring”, that is the loss in pension income as a consequence of mothers’ care-related employment interruptions and part-time work? I analyse the pension incomes of older women and the mother pension gap, the income difference between mothers and childless women, and examines the impact of pension care entitlements. Micro-level life course data on individual employment histories in 13 European countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARELIFE) is used and combined with institutional data. The results of the multilevel analyses show that the actual effect of pension care entitlements on the income position of older women is low. On the contrary, the existence of basic pension schemes and the gender inequality within working life are important factors which influence the income position of mothers in old age. Rentenleistungen für Elternschaft und Kinderbetreuungszeiten, den sogenannten Mütterrenten, wird eine hohe Bedeutung zur Reduktion der Geschlechterungleichheit beim Alterseinkommen zugeschrieben. So haben fast alle europäischen Länder entsprechende Regelungen in ihren ansonsten überwiegend erwerbszentrierten staatlichen Rentensystemen etabliert. Aber welche Wirkungen haben diese Leistungen tatsächlich? Können sie die Einbußen beim Alterseinkommen, die sich für Frauen durch Kinderbetreuungszeiten ergeben, tatsächlich kompensieren und den mother pension gap reduzieren? Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die institutionellen Regelungen zur Berücksichtigung von Elternschaft und Kindererziehung in den Rentensystemen Europas und unterzieht ihre Wirkungen auf das Alterseinkommen von Müttern einer empirischen Prüfung. Dafür werden Biografiedaten von Frauen aus 13 europäischen Ländern aus dem Survey of Health, Ageing andRetirement in Europe (SHARELIFE) herangezogen. Die Mehrebenenanalysen zeigen, dass die tatsächliche Wirkung von Mütterrenten auf das Alterseinkommen von Frauen gering ist. Eine hohe Bedeutung haben hingegen das Vorhandensein von allgemeinen Basisrenten sowie die Geschlechterungleichheit im Erwerbsleben.

Suggested Citation

  • Katja Möhring, 2014. "Der Einfluss von Kindererziehungszeiten und Mütterrenten auf Alterseinkommen von Müttern in Europa," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 83(2), pages 139-155.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:83-2-10
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.3790/vjh.83.2.139
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    Keywords

    Pension care entitlements; pension income; child care; employment history; SHARELIFE;

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
    • J78 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Public Policy (including comparable worth)

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