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The National Banking Acts and the Transformation of New York City Banking During the Civil War Era

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  • James, John A.
  • Weiman, David F.

Abstract

Focusing on the New York banking sector, we analyze a neglected, but profound impact of the National Banking Acts. By resisting federal banking legislation and “boycotting” newly chartered national banks, the New York Clearing House Association members created market opportunities for the new entrants to dominate the correspondent banking market. The new entrants’ aggressive tactics including interest payments on deposits increased their vulnerability to panicky withdrawals by country banks. They also magnified conflicts of interest within the clearinghouse, which weakened its central banking functions and further destabilized the macroeconomy.

Suggested Citation

  • James, John A. & Weiman, David F., 2011. "The National Banking Acts and the Transformation of New York City Banking During the Civil War Era," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 71(02), pages 338-362, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jechis:v:71:y:2011:i:02:p:338-362_00
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    Cited by:

    1. Rousseau, Peter L., 2011. "The Market for Bank Stocks and the Rise of Deposit Banking in New York City, 1866–1897," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 71(04), pages 976-1005, December.
    2. repec:eee:jfinec:v:125:y:2017:i:3:p:434-453 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Jaremski, Matthew & Rousseau, Peter L., 2018. "The dawn of an ‘age of deposits’ in the United States," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 264-281.
    4. Calomiris, Charles W. & Carlson, Mark, 2017. "Interbank networks in the National Banking Era: Their purpose and their role in the Panic of 1893," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(3), pages 434-453.

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