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Multidimensional Diplomacy


  • Trager, Robert F.


States often negotiate with each other over more than one issue at the same time. This article presents a model of multidimensional international crisis bargaining. Unlike unidimensional bargaining, with two issue dimensions states can send costless signals about their resolve that have dramatic effects on other states' beliefs and actions. One reason is that when states claim a willingness to fight over an issue they in fact are not willing to fight over, they may lose the opportunity to get what they really want without conflict. As a result, when there is a chance that adversaries may each be willing to fight over two issues, the states can even sometimes convey with certainty when they will fight for both issues. The model also leads to some surprising comparative statics, for example, decreases in the probability that the target is willing to fight can increase the probability of war.

Suggested Citation

  • Trager, Robert F., 2011. "Multidimensional Diplomacy," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(03), pages 469-506, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:intorg:v:65:y:2011:i:03:p:469-506_00

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Varieties of Crises and Their Dates," Introductory Chapters,in: This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly Princeton University Press.
    2. Kapstein, Ethan B., 1989. "Resolving the regulator's dilemma: international coordination of banking regulations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 43(02), pages 323-347, March.
    3. Reinhart, Karmen & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2009. ""This time is different": panorama of eight centuries of financial crises," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 77-114, March.
    4. Louis W. Pauly, 2009. "The Old and the New Politics of International Financial Stability," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47, pages 955-975, November.
    5. Sheng,Andrew, 2009. "From Asian to Global Financial Crisis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521134156, March.
    6. Ruggie, John Gerard, 1982. "International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(02), pages 379-415, March.
    7. Simmons, Beth A., 2001. "The International Politics of Harmonization: The Case of Capital Market Regulation," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 55(03), pages 589-620, June.
    8. Kapstein, Ethan Barnaby, 1992. "Between power and purpose: central bankers and the politics of regulatory convergence," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(01), pages 265-287, December.
    9. Posner, Elliot, 2009. "Making Rules for Global Finance: Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation at the Turn of the Millennium," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 63(04), pages 665-699, October.
    10. Tarullo, Daniel, 2008. "Banking on Basel: The Future of International Financial Regulation," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 4235.
    11. Sheng,Andrew, 2009. "From Asian to Global Financial Crisis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521118644, March.
    12. repec:cup:apsrev:v:98:y:2004:i:01:p:171-189_00 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Oatley, Thomas & Nabors, Robert, 1998. "Redistributive Cooperation: Market Failure, Wealth Transfers, and the Basle Accord," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 52(01), pages 35-54, December.
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