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Estimation of relative bargaining power in markets for raw milk in the United States


  • Byeong-Il Ahn

    (Korea University)

  • Daniel A. Sumner

    (University of California, Davis)


This study contributes to the empirical industrial organization literature by deriving and estimating the empirical equation containing the parameter for bargaining power and an indicator of competition between suppliers. We specify a reduced form of the price equation, which is composed of the minimum price specified in milk marketing orders and the reduced form of the upper bound for the price in regional raw milk markets in the United States. Estimation results indicate that the relative bargaining power of dairy cooperatives in setting regional raw milk prices is small compared to the power of milk bottlers. We find the price differential in milk marketing orders has contributed to raise the price bargained between dairy cooperatives and milk bottlers.

Suggested Citation

  • Byeong-Il Ahn & Daniel A. Sumner, 2012. "Estimation of relative bargaining power in markets for raw milk in the United States," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 15, pages 1-23, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:cem:jaecon:v:15:y:2012:n:1:p:1-23

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    More about this item


    bargaining power; minimum price regulation; milk marketing order; price equation;

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L66 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness


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