Les réformes des systèmes de retraite en Europe
The dependency ratio is expected to rise from 39.5% in 2000 to 79.5% in 2040 due to the increase in life expectancy and falling birth rates in Europe. Even with full employment and higher employment rates, the ratio of pensions to GDP would rise from 12.5 to 18.3%. Most European countries have already started to reform their systems. Five strategies may be implemented, with difficulties and risks implied: increasing contributions rates; postponing retirement ages; reducing pensions levels; setting up funded complementary schemes; developing reserves in the pay-as-you-go public systems. These reforms were led by member States in accordance with the subsidiarity principle. However, the European Commission and the Council have begun to discuss these issues. Suggestions for a common strategy and an overview of the reforms undertaken in the main countries are presented.