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Gender Wage Differences in Soviet and Transitional Estonia


  • Charles Kroncke

    () (Gordon College)

  • Kenneth Smith

    () (Millersville University)


We use the retrospective, covering the years 1989 - 1994, Estonian Labor Force Survey to examine potential wage discrimination against women. We look at fulltime workers of Estonian and Russian ethnicity in the years 1989, the Soviet period, and 1994, the last full year of the survey and three years after Estonian independence and the beginning of the transition to a market economy. We find substantial evidence of wage discrimination against women in both years. In fact, despite the official rhetoric of gender equality in the Soviet Union, our results indicate the relative level of wage discrimination against female workers in Estonia changed very little between 1989 and 1994 when occupational dummies are excluded from the wage equations.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles Kroncke & Kenneth Smith, 2002. "Gender Wage Differences in Soviet and Transitional Estonia," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 3(1), pages 31-49, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bic:journl:v:3:y:2002:i:1:p:31-49

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    Cited by:

    1. Mihails Hazans, 2003. "Returns to Education in the Baltic Countries," SSE Riga/BICEPS Research Papers 2003-1, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies (BICEPS);Stockholm School of Economics in Riga (SSE Riga).

    More about this item


    gender; wage discrimination; wage decomposition;

    JEL classification:

    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • P23 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population


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