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Productividad total de los factores en la agricultura chilena: 1961-1996

  • Olavarria, Jaime A.
  • Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.
  • Cocchi, Horacio

Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo es medir el cambio de la productividad en la agricultura chilena durante el período 1961-96. La Productividad Total de los Factores (PTF) fue calculada mediante índices Törnqvist. Los datos utilizados para estimar estos índices incluyen precios y cantidades de 51 cultivos, de la mano de obra, de la tierra, del capital y de factores intermedios. El análisis revela que mientras los productos crecieron un 2,69% anual, el uso de factores de producción bajó un 0,09%; por lo tanto, la PTF creció a una tasa promedio anual del 2,78% entre 1961 y 1996. Se realizó además un análisis para siete períodos correspondientes a diferentes regímenes políticos. La PTF creció a un promedio anual de 1,83% con Alessandri (1961-64), 3,12% bajo el período de Frei Montalva (1965-70), 1,52% durante Allende (1971-73), 6,11% en la primera parte del régimen de Pinochet y -0,28% en el segundo período de Pinochet (1981-89), 3,12% bajo Aylwin (1990-93) y 5,28% bajo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (1994-96). Los resultados sugieren que el programa de reforma agraria implementado en los sesenta no tuvo un efecto negativo en el crecimiento de la PTF. Palabras Claves: Productividad Total de los Factores; Indice Törnqvist; Agricultura; Chile Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to determine the productivity growth in the Chilean Agricultural sector during the 1961-1996 period. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) was calculated using the Törnqvist index, which is a discrete approximation to the Divisia index. The data used to estimate these indexes are prices and quantities for 51 crops, and for four inputs - labor, land, capital and intermediate factors. The rate of annual growth for the period 1961-96 was 2,69% and 0,09%, for products and inputs, respectively. Therefore, the TFP grew at an average annual rate of 2,78%. Given a significant annual variability in TFP growth, an analysis was carried out for seven sub-periods corresponding to different political regimes. TFP grew at an annual average of 1,83% with Alessandri (1961-64), 3,12% under the period of Frei Montalva (1965-70), 1,52% during the Allende years (1971-73), 6,11% during the first part of the Pinochet regime and 0,28% in the second period of Pinochet (1981-89), 3,12% during Aylwin (1990-93) and 5,28% under Frei Ruiz-Tagle (1994-96). The results suggest that the land reform program implemented in the 1960s did not have a negative effect on TFP growth, as has been previously argued by some authors.

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File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28774
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Article provided by Spanish Association of Agricultural Economists in its journal Economia Agraria y Recursos Naturales.

Volume (Year): 04 (2004)
Issue (Month): 08 ()
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:ags:earnsa:28774
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