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Energy Consumption and Real Income: A Panel Cointegration Multi-country Study

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  • Roselyne Joyeux
  • Ronald D. Ripple

Abstract

The direction of the causality between energy consumption and income is an important issue in the fields of energy economics, economic growth, and policies toward energy use. The seminal work on the relations between energy consumption and aggregate income is Kraft and Kraft (1978). An extensive literature has followed, but the array of findings provide anything but consensus on either the existence of relations or direction of causality between the variables. The work in this paper extends this research by analysing the cointegrating and causal relations between income and three energy consumption series based on panel data and the latest panel methodologies. These relations are analysed for the 30 OECD countries and 26 non-OECD countries. The results support a finding of causality flowing from income to energy consumption for developed and developing economies, alike.

Suggested Citation

  • Roselyne Joyeux & Ronald D. Ripple, 2011. "Energy Consumption and Real Income: A Panel Cointegration Multi-country Study," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 107-142.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:2011v32-02-a05
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    Cited by:

    1. Fallahi, Firouz & Karimi, Mohammad & Voia, Marcel-Cristian, 2016. "Persistence in world energy consumption: Evidence from subsampling confidence intervals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 175-183.
    2. Maria Pempetzoglou, 2014. "Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: A Linear and Nonlinear Causality Investigation for Turkey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(2), pages 263-273.
    3. Wong, Siang Leng & Chang, Youngho & Chia, Wai-Mun, 2013. "Energy consumption, energy R&D and real GDP in OECD countries with and without oil reserves," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 51-60.
    4. Brantley Liddle, 2013. "The Energy, Economic Growth, Urbanization Nexus Across Development: Evidence from Heterogeneous Panel Estimates Robust to Cross-Sectional Dependence," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
    5. repec:eee:inteco:v:151:y:2017:i:c:p:1-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Stern, David I. & Enflo, Kerstin, 2013. "Causality between energy and output in the long-run," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 135-146.
    7. Azam, Muhammad & Khan, Abdul Qayyum & Bakhtyar, B. & Emirullah, Chandra, 2015. "The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in the ASEAN-5 countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 732-745.
    8. Liddle, Brantley & Lung, Sidney, 2015. "Revisiting energy consumption and GDP causality: Importance of a priori hypothesis testing, disaggregated data, and heterogeneous panels," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 44-55.
    9. KARGI, Bilal, 2014. "Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: A Long-Term Co-integrated Analysis for Turkey," MPRA Paper 55699, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Antonakakis, Nikolaos & Chatziantoniou, Ioannis & Filis, George, 2017. "Energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth: An ethical dilemma," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 68(P1), pages 808-824.
    11. Bildirici, Melike E. & Kayıkçı, Fazıl, 2012. "Economic growth and electricity consumption in former Soviet Republics," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 747-753.
    12. Naser, Hanan, 2014. "On the cointegration and causality between Oil market, Nuclear Energy Consumption, and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developed Countries," MPRA Paper 65252, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Mar 2015.
    13. Herrerias, M.J. & Joyeux, R. & Girardin, E., 2013. "Short- and long-run causality between energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence across regions in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 1483-1492.
    14. Daniel A. Sanchez-Loor & Manuel A. Zambrano-Monserrate, 2015. "Causality Analysis between Electricity Consumption, Real Gross Domestic Product, Foreign Direct Investment, Human Development and Remittances in Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(3), pages 746-753.
    15. Antonakakis, Nikolaos & Chatziantoniou, Ioannis & Filis, George, 2015. "Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth: A Moral Dilemma," MPRA Paper 67422, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Azam, Muhammad & Khan, Abdul Qayyum & Zaman, Khalid & Ahmad, Mehboob, 2015. "Factors determining energy consumption: Evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1123-1131.
    17. Bildirici, Melike Elif & Kayıkçı, Fazıl, 2013. "Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 156-161.
    18. Dagher, Leila & Yacoubian, Talar, 2012. "The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Lebanon," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 795-801.
    19. Fouquet, Roger, 2014. "Long run demand for energy services: income and price elasticities over two hundred years," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 59070, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Bozoklu, Seref & Yilanci, Veli, 2013. "Energy consumption and economic growth for selected OECD countries: Further evidence from the Granger causality test in the frequency domain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 877-881.
    21. Roger Fouquet, 2013. "Long Run Demand for Energy Services: the Role of Economic and Technological Development," Working Papers 2013-03, BC3.
    22. David I. Stern, 2011. "From Correlation to Granger Causality," Crawford School Research Papers 1113, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    23. Firouz Fallahi & Mohammad Karimi & Marcel-Cristian Voia, 2014. "Are Shocks to Energy Consumption Persistent? Evidence from Subsampling Confidence Intervals," Carleton Economic Papers 14-02, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
    24. Pirlogea, Corina & Cicea, Claudiu, 2012. "Econometric perspective of the energy consumption and economic growth relation in European Union," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(8), pages 5718-5726.

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    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General

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