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An Empirical Analysis of Urban Form, Transport, and Global Warming

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Listed:
  • Fabio Grazi
  • Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh
  • Jos N. van Ommeren

Abstract

Does urban form affect travel choices and thus CO2 emissions by individuals? If this is the case, then urban form and policies that influence it deserve serious attention in the context of long-term climate policy. To address this issue, we examine the impact of urban density on commuting behavior, and the consequences for CO2 emissions. The empirical investigation is based on an instrumental variable approach (IV), so as to take account of endogeneity of residence location. We decompose travel demand into components related to modal split and commuting distance by each mode.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabio Grazi & Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh & Jos N. van Ommeren, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of Urban Form, Transport, and Global Warming," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 97-122.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:2008v29-04-a05
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    Cited by:

    1. Yin, Yanhong & Aikawa, Kohei & Mizokami, Shoshi, 2016. "Effect of housing relocation subsidy policy on energy consumption: A simulation case study," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 291-302.
    2. Henri Waisman & Céline Guivarch & Fabio Grazi & Jean Hourcade, 2012. "The I maclim-R model: infrastructures, technical inertia and the costs of low carbon futures under imperfect foresight," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 114(1), pages 101-120, September.
    3. Yin, Yanhong & Mizokami, Shoshi & Aikawa, Kohei, 2015. "Compact development and energy consumption: Scenario analysis of urban structures based on behavior simulation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 449-457.
    4. Jia, Tao & Håkansson, Johan, 2016. "To what extent are CO2 emissions from intra-urban shopping trips by cars affected by drivers’ travel behaviour and store location?," HUI Working Papers 117, HUI Research.
    5. V. Masson & Colette Marchadier & L. Adolphe & R. Aguejdad & P. Avner & Marc Bonhomme & Geneviève Bretagne & X. Briottet & B. Bueno & Cécile De Munck & O. Doukari & Stéphane Hallegatte & J. Hidalgo & T, 2014. "Adapting cities to climate change: A systemic modelling approach," Post-Print hal-01136215, HAL.
    6. Runsen Zhang & Kakuya Matsushima & Kiyoshi Kobayashi, 2016. "Land Use, Transport, And Carbon Emissions: A Computable Urban Economic Model For Changzhou, China," Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 162-181, November.
    7. Kulmer, Veronika & Koland, Olivia & Steininger, Karl W. & Fürst, Bernhard & Käfer, Andreas, 2014. "The interaction of spatial planning and transport policy: A regional perspective on sprawl," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 7(1), pages 57-77.
    8. Song, Siqi & Diao, Mi & Feng, Chen-Chieh, 2016. "Individual transport emissions and the built environment: A structural equation modelling approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 206-219.
    9. Pengjun Zhao & Ralph Chapman & Edward Randal & Philippa Howden-Chapman, 2013. "Understanding Resilient Urban Futures: A Systemic Modelling Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(7), pages 1-22, July.
    10. Can Wang & Jie Lin & Wenjia Cai & ZhongXiang Zhang, 2013. "Policies and Practices of Low Carbon City Development in China," Energy & Environment, , vol. 24(7-8), pages 1347-1372, December.
    11. Jinhyun Hong & Qing Shen & Lei Zhang, 2014. "How do built-environment factors affect travel behavior? A spatial analysis at different geographic scales," Transportation, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 419-440, May.
    12. Xu, Bin & Lin, Boqiang, 2015. "Carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China's transport sector: A dynamic VAR (vector autoregression) approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 486-495.
    13. Stéphane Hallegatte & Fanny Henriet & Jan Corfee-Morlot, 2011. "The economics of climate change impacts and policy benefits at city scale: a conceptual framework," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 104(1), pages 51-87, January.
    14. Julie Rozenberg & Céline Guivarch & R.J. Lempert & Stéphane Hallegatte, 2012. "Building SSPs for Climate Policy Analysis : A Scenario Elicitation Methodology to Map the Space of Possible Future Challenges to Mitigation and Adaptation," Working Papers hal-00793927, HAL.
    15. Wiedenhofer, Dominik & Lenzen, Manfred & Steinberger, Julia K., 2013. "Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 696-707.
    16. Li, Jun, 2011. "Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities--A critical review and perspectives," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3503-3514, June.
    17. Julie Rozenberg & Céline Guivarch & Robert Lempert & Stéphane Hallegatte, 2014. "Building SSPs for climate policy analysis: a scenario elicitation methodology to map the space of possible future challenges to mitigation and adaptation," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 122(3), pages 509-522, February.
    18. Elisheba Spiller & Heather Stephens & Christopher Timmins & Allison Smith, 2014. "The Effect of Gasoline Taxes and Public Transit Investments on Driving Patterns," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 59(4), pages 633-657, December.
    19. Spiller, Elisheba & Stephens, Heather M. & Timmins, Christopher & Smith, Allison, 2012. "Does the Substitutability of Public Transit Affect Commuters’ Response to Gasoline Price Changes?," Discussion Papers dp-12-29, Resources For the Future.
    20. Kenneth Gillingham & Anders Munk-Nielsen, 2016. "A Tale of Two Tails: Commuting and the Fuel Price Response in Driving," NBER Working Papers 22937, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Grazi, Fabio & van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., 2008. "Spatial organization, transport, and climate change: Comparing instruments of spatial planning and policy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(4), pages 630-639, November.
    22. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2017:i:1:p:19-:d:123917 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Fabio Grazi & Henri Waisman, 2015. "Agglomeration, Urban Growth and Infrastructure in Global Climate Policy: A Dynamic CGE Approach," Working Papers 2015.61, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.

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    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General

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