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The Capital Asset Pricing Model


  • André F. Perold


The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) revolutionized modern finance. Developed in the early 1960s by William Sharpe, Jack Treynor, John Lintner and Jan Mossin, the model provided the first coherent framework for relating the required return on an investment to the risk of that investment. This paper lays out the key ideas of the model, places its development in a historical context, and discusses its applications and enduring importance to the field of finance.

Suggested Citation

  • André F. Perold, 2004. "The Capital Asset Pricing Model," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 3-24, Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:18:y:2004:i:3:p:3-24 Note: DOI: 10.1257/0895330042162340

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Breeden, Douglas T., 1979. "An intertemporal asset pricing model with stochastic consumption and investment opportunities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 265-296, September.
    2. Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The arbitrage theory of capital asset pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 341-360, December.
    3. Michael C. Jensen, 1968. "The Performance Of Mutual Funds In The Period 1945–1964," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(2), pages 389-416, May.
    4. Lawrence Fisher & James H. Lorie, 1968. "Rates of Return on Investments in Common Stock: The Year-by-Year Record, 1926-65," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41, pages 291-291.
    5. John Lintner, 1965. "Security Prices, Risk, And Maximal Gains From Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 20(4), pages 587-615, December.
    6. Solnik, Bruno H., 1974. "An equilibrium model of the international capital market," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 500-524, August.
    7. Merton, Robert C, 1987. " A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 483-510, July.
    8. J. Tobin, 1958. "Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 65-86.
    9. Mayers, David, 1973. "Nonmarketable Assets and the Determination of Capital Asset Prices in the Absence of a Riskless Asset," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(2), pages 258-267, April.
    10. Myron J. Gordon & Eli Shapiro, 1956. "Capital Equipment Analysis: The Required Rate of Profit," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 3(1), pages 102-110, October.
    11. Black, Fischer, 1972. "Capital Market Equilibrium with Restricted Borrowing," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(3), pages 444-455, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mollet, Janick Christian & Ziegler, Andreas, 2014. "Socially responsible investing and stock performance: New empirical evidence for the US and European stock markets," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 208-216.
    2. Lutz, Stefan, 2013. "Risk premia in multi-national enterprises," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 293-305.
    3. Ziegler, Andreas & Busch, Timo & Hoffmann, Volker H., 2011. "Disclosed corporate responses to climate change and stock performance: An international empirical analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1283-1294.
    4. Stefan Lutz, 2011. "Simultaneous determination of market value and risk premium in the valuation of firms," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1120, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    5. Kamal, Javed Bin, 2012. "Optimal portfolio selection in ex ante stock price bubble and furthermore bubble burst scenario from Dhaka stock exchange with relevance to sharpe’s single index model," MPRA Paper 60610, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Andrew stuart Duncan & Guanglingdave Liu, 2009. "Modelling South African Currency Crises As Structural Changes In The Volatility Of The Rand," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 77(3), pages 363-379, September.
    7. Beaulieu, Marie-Claude & Dufour, Jean-Marie & Khalaf, Lynda, 2010. "Asset-pricing anomalies and spanning: Multivariate and multifactor tests with heavy-tailed distributions," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 763-782, September.
    8. Dayanandan, Ajit & Donker, Han, 2011. "Oil prices and accounting profits of oil and gas companies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 252-257.
    9. Janick Christian Mollet & Andreas Ziegler, 2012. "Is Socially Responsible Investing Really Beneficial? New Empirical Evidence for the US and European Stock Markets," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201228, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    10. Chia-Lin Chang & Allen, David & McAleer, Michael, 2013. "Recent developments in financial economics and econometrics: An overview," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, pages 217-226.
    11. Nordine Abidi & Burcu Hacibedel & Mwanza Nkusu, 2016. "Changing Times for Frontier Markets; A Perspective from Portfolio Investment Flows and Financial Integration," IMF Working Papers 16/177, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Chen, Lin & Qin, Lu & Zhu, Hongquan, 2015. "Opinion divergence, unexpected trading volume and stock returns: Evidence from China," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 119-127.
    13. Urs von Arx & Andreas Ziegler, 2008. "The Effect of CSR on Stock Performance: New Evidence for the USA and Europe," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 08/85, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    14. Hwang, Young-Soon & Min, Hong-Ghi & McDonald, Judith A. & Kim, Hwagyun & Kim, Bong-Han, 2010. "Using the credit spread as an option-risk factor: Size and value effects in CAPM," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2995-3009, December.
    15. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2007. "Investor Sentiment in the Stock Market," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 129-152, Spring.
    16. Stefan Lutz, 2012. "Effects of taxation on European multi-nationals’ financing and profits," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1214, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    17. Zabarankin, Michael & Pavlikov, Konstantin & Uryasev, Stan, 2014. "Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with drawdown measure," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(2), pages 508-517.
    18. Trinks, Arjan & Ibikunle, Gbenga & Mulder, Machiel & Scholtens, Bert, 2017. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity and the Cost of Capital," Research Report 17017-EEF, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).

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