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Input Sourcing and Multinational Production

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  • Stefania Garetto

Abstract

I propose a general equilibrium framework where firms decide whether to outsource or integrate input manufacturing, domestically or abroad. By outsourcing, firms may benefit from suppliers' technologies, but pay mark-up prices. By sourcing intrafirm, they save on mark-ups and pay possibly lower foreign wages. Multinational corporations arise when firms integrate production abroad. The model predicts that intrafirm imports are positively correlated with the mean and variance of the firms' productivity distribution and with the degree of input differentiation. I use the model to quantify the US welfare gains from intrafirm trade, which amount to about 0.23 percent of consumption per-capita. (JEL D21, F12, F23, F41, L11, L24)

Suggested Citation

  • Stefania Garetto, 2013. "Input Sourcing and Multinational Production," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(2), pages 118-151, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aejmac:v:5:y:2013:i:2:p:118-51
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/mac.5.2.118
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    Cited by:

    1. Zlate, Andrei, 2016. "Offshore production and business cycle dynamics with heterogeneous firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 34-49.
    2. Pol Antràs & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2009. "Organizations and Trade," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 43-64, May.
    3. Arita, Shawn & Tanaka, Kiyoyasu, 2011. "Simulating heterogeneous multinational firms," IDE Discussion Papers 296, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    4. Johannes Boehm, 2014. "The Impact of Contract Enforcement Costs on Outsourcing and Aggregate Productivity," 2014 Meeting Papers 340, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    5. Wolfgang Keller & Stephen Ross Yeaple, 2013. "The Gravity of Knowledge," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(4), pages 1414-1444, June.
    6. Natalia Ramondo & Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 2013. "Trade, Multinational Production, and the Gains from Openness," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 121(2), pages 273-322.
    7. Shawn Arita & Kiyoyasu Tanaka, 2014. "Heterogeneous multinational firms and productivity gains from falling FDI barriers," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(1), pages 83-113, February.
    8. Kunal Dasgupta, 2009. "Learning, Knowledge Diffusion and the Gains from Globalization," Working Papers tecipa-364, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    9. Pol Antràs & Teresa C. Fort & Felix Tintelnot, 2017. "The Margins of Global Sourcing: Theory and Evidence from US Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(9), pages 2514-2564, September.
    10. Costinot, Arnaud & Rodríguez-Clare, Andrés, 2014. "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization," Handbook of International Economics, Elsevier.
    11. Stefania Garetto, 2014. "Firms’ Heterogeneity and Incomplete Pass-Through," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2014-006, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    12. Martin Kliem & Alexander Kriwoluzky, 2014. "Toward a Taylor Rule for Fiscal Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 17(2), pages 294-302, April.
    13. Serge Shikher, 2014. "International production, technology diffusion, and trade," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 111-154, February.
    14. Alfonso Irarrazabal & Andreas Moxnes & Luca David Opromolla, 2013. "The Margins of Multinational Production and the Role of Intrafirm Trade," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 121(1), pages 74-126.
    15. Pamela Bombarda & Stefania Marcassa, 2014. "Gains from Intra-Firm Trade and Multinational Production," THEMA Working Papers 2014-14, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    16. Antrà s, Pol & Yeaple, Stephen R., 2014. "Multinational Firms and the Structure of International Trade," Handbook of International Economics, Elsevier.
    17. Wolfgang Keller & Stephen R. Yeaple, "undated". "Global Production and Trade in the Knowledge Economy," Discussion Papers 09/07, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    18. Garetto, Stefania, 2016. "Firms' heterogeneity, incomplete information, and pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 168-179.
    19. Boehm, Johannes, 2015. "The impact of contract enforcement costs on outsourcing and aggregate productivity," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86281, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Chen, Xiaoping & Lu, Yi & Zhu, Lianming, 2017. "Product cycle, contractibility, and global sourcing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 283-296.
    21. Jonathan EATON & Samuel KORTUM & Francis KRAMARZ, 2016. "Firm-to-Firm Trade: Imports, exports, and the labor market," Discussion papers 16048, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    22. Joel Rodrigue, 2014. "Multinational Production, Exports and Aggregate Productivity," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 17(2), pages 243-261, April.
    23. Ramondo, Natalia, 2014. "A quantitative approach to multinational production," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 108-122.
    24. Stefania Garetto, 2016. "Firms’ Heterogeneity, Incomplete Information, and Pass-Through," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series wp2016-004, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    25. Pamela Bombarda & Stefania Marcassa, 2017. "Intra-Firm Trade, Multinational Production, and Welfare," THEMA Working Papers 2017-15, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L24 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures

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