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Environmental innovation and employment dynamics in different technology fields: An analysis based on the German community innovation survey 2009

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  • Horbach, Jens
  • Rennings, Klaus

Abstract

The employment effects of environmental technologies are in the focus of politicians but there are only few studies analyzing these effects for different environmental innovation fields. We use the 2009 wave of the German part of the Community Innovation Panel (CIS) allowing for such an analysis at the firm level. The main focus of the paper lies on the analysis of the adaptation behavior of firms with respect to the relationship of employment and (environmental) innovation. We use an endogenous switching regression approach to take the simultaneous haracter of innovation activities and employment demand into consideration. Our econometric analysis shows that innovative firms in general are characterized by a significantly more dynamic employment development. Especially the realization of environmental process innovations leads to a higher employment within the firm. The theoretical background of this finding is that process innovation induced cost savings improve the competitiveness of firms. This has a positive effect on demand and thus also increases employment. A more detailed analysis by different environmental innovation fields shows that material and energy savings are positively correlated to employment because they especially help to increase the profitability and competitiveness of the firm. On the other side, air and water process innovations that are still dominated by end-of-pipe technologies have a negative impact on the employment development. --

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 12-006.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:12006

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Keywords: Employment; Environmental Innovation; Innovation Behaviour;

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References

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  1. Mariacristina Piva & Marco Vivarelli, 2005. "Innovation and Employment: Evidence from Italian Microdata," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 86(1), pages 65-83, October.
  2. Bronwyn Hall & Francesca Lotti & Jacques Mairesse, 2006. "Employment, innovation and productivity: evidence from Italian microdata," IFS Working Papers W06/24, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Stefan Lachenmaier & Horst Rottmann, 2007. "Effects of Innovation on Employment: A Dynamic Panel Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 2015, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. Harabi, Najib, 2000. "Employment Effects of Ecological Innovations: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 4395, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Rennings, Klaus, 1999. "Employment impacts of cleaner production: evidence from a German study using case studies and surveys," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-32, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Rexhäuser, Sascha & Rammer, Christian, 2011. "Unmasking the Porter hypothesis: Environmental innovations and firm-profitability," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-036, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  7. Tommaso Antonucci & Mario Pianta, 2002. "Employment Effects of Product and Process Innovation in Europe," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 295-307.
  8. Rupert Harrison & Jordi Jaumandreu & Jacques Mairesse & Bettina Peters, 2008. "Does Innovation Stimulate Employment? A Firm-Level Analysis Using Comparable Micro-Data from Four European Countries," NBER Working Papers 14216, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Bogliacino, Francesco & Pianta, Mario, 2010. "Innovation and Employment: a Reinvestigation using Revised Pavitt classes," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 799-809, July.
  10. Van Reenen, John, 1997. "Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 255-84, April.
  11. Rennings, Klaus & Zwick, Thomas, 2001. "The employment impact of cleaner production on the firm level: empirical evidence from a survey in five European countries," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-08, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  12. Bettina Peters, 2005. "Employment Effects of Different Innovation Activities: Microeconometric Evidence," Development and Comp Systems 0504002, EconWPA.
  13. Volker Zimmermann, 2009. "The Impact of Innovation on Employment in Small and Medium Enterprises with Different Growth Rates," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 229(2-3), pages 313-326, June.
  14. Stefan Lachenmaier & Horst Rottmann, 2006. "Employment Effects of Innovation at the Firm Level," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Papers No. 27, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  15. Michael Lokshin & Zurab Sajaia, 2004. "Maximum likelihood estimation of endogenous switching regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 282-289, September.
  16. Smolny, Werner, 1998. "Innovations, Prices and Employment: A Theoretical Model and an Empirical Application for West German Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 359-81, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Davide Antonioli & Simone Borghesi & Massimiliano Mazzanti, 2014. "Are Regional Systems Greening the Economy? the Role of Environmental Innovations and Agglomeration Forces," Working Papers 2014.42, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  2. Giulio Cainelli & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Roberto Zoboli, 2013. "Environmental performance, manufacturing sectors and firm growth: structural factors and dynamic relationships," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 15(4), pages 367-387, October.

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