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The employment impact of cleaner production on the firm level: empirical evidence from a survey in five European countries

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  • Rennings, Klaus
  • Zwick, Thomas

Abstract

This paper analyses the determinants of employment reactions of firms when environmental innovations have been carried out. It differentiates hereby between employment increases and decreases. The data stem from a telephone survey covering more than 1500 firms in five European countries that have introduced environmental innovations recently. Environmentally beneficial product and service innovations create jobs in contrast to process innovations. Employment changes occur in the wake of major innovations only and especially in small firms and firms with positive sales expectations. While innovations purely motivated by environmental goals tend not to have employment effects, cost reductions envisaged by environmental innovations reduce employment. We detect skill biased technological change of environmental innovations. Environmental innovations have a small but positive effect on employment on the firm level. Thus, environmental support programmes do not counteract labour market policy. A further shift from end-of-pipe technologies to cleaner production, especially towards product and service innovations, would be beneficial for the environment and creates jobs. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 01-08.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5363

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Keywords: Environmental technologies; cleaner production; innovation; labour demand;

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References

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  1. Brouwer, E. & Kleinknecht, Alfred & Reijnen, J.O.N., 1993. "Employment growth and innovation at the firm level," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5662246, Tilburg University.
  2. Rennings, Klaus, 2000. "Redefining innovation -- eco-innovation research and the contribution from ecological economics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 319-332, February.
  3. Brouwer, Erik & Kleinknecht, Alfred & Reijnen, Jeroen O N, 1993. "Employment Growth and Innovation at the Firm Level," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 153-59, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Rennings, Klaus & Beise, Marian, 2003. "Lead Markets of Environmental Innovations: A Framework for Innovation and Environmental Economics," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-01, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Rennings, Klaus & Ziegler, Andreas, 2004. "Determinants of Environmental Innovations in Germany: Do Organizational Measures Matter? A Discrete Choice Analysis at the Firm Level," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-30, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Frondel, Manuel & Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus, 2004. "End-of-Pipe or Cleaner Production? An Empirical Comparison of Environmental Innovation Decisions Across OECD Countries," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-82, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  4. Horbach, Jens, 2008. "The impact of innovation activities on employment in the environmental sector : empirical results for Germany at the firm level," IAB Discussion Paper 200816, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  5. Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus, 2012. "Environmental innovation and employment dynamics in different technology fields: An analysis based on the German community innovation survey 2009," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-006, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Rennings, Klaus & Ziegler, Andreas & Ankele, Kathrin & Hoffmann, Esther, 2006. "The influence of different characteristics of the EU environmental management and auditing scheme on technical environmental innovations and economic performance," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 45-59, April.
  7. Beise, Marian & Rennings, Klaus, 2005. "Lead markets and regulation: a framework for analyzing the international diffusion of environmental innovations," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 5-17, January.
  8. Frondel, Manuel & Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus, 2008. "What triggers environmental management and innovation? Empirical evidence for Germany," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 153-160, May.
  9. Rennings, Klaus & Ziegler, Andreas & Zwick, Thomas, 2001. "Employment changes in environmentally innovative firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-46, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  10. Faucheux, S. & Nicolaï, I., 2011. "IT for green and green IT: A proposed typology of eco-innovation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 2020-2027, September.
  11. Jens Horbach, 2010. "The Impact of Innovation Activities on Employment in the Environmental Sector - Empirical Results for Germany at the firm Level," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 230(4), pages 403-419, August.
  12. Massimiliano Mazzanti & Giulio Cainelli & Roberto Zoboli, 2008. "The Relationship Between Environmental Efficiency and Manufacturing Firm’s Growth," Working Papers, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei 2008.99, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  13. Thomas Cleff & Klaus Rennings, 2011. "Theoretical and Empirical Evidence of Timing-to-Market and Lead Market Strategies for Successful Environmental Innovation," Discussion Papers dp11-01, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.

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