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Arbeitsmärkte für Künstler und Publizisten: Modelle einer zukünftigen Arbeitswelt?

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  • Haak, Carroll
  • Schmid, Günther
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    Abstract

    Die vergangenen Jahrzehnte deuten auf eine intensive Veränderung in den Beschäftigungssystemen. Doch herrscht Unklarheit darüber, wie tiefgreifend sich in Zukunft diese Entwicklung fortsetzen wird. Im aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Diskurs um den Wandel der Arbeitswelt stellen der Niedriglohnsektor, der dritte Sektor und die „neuen Selbständigen“ die Bühnen für zukünftige beschäftigungspolitische Strategien dar. Die Arbeitsmärkte von Künstlern und Publizisten bieten in ihrer Vielfältigkeit dabei reichhaltiges Anschauungsmaterial. Viele Künstler und Publizisten arbeiten als ehrenamtliche Mitarbeiter im Kulturbereich, erzielen Einkünfte durch niedrig bezahlte Dienstleistungen oder treten auf den Markt als die „neuen Selbständigen“. Dabei bewegen sie sich häufig zwischen Sequenzen von Erwerbs- und Nichterwerbszeiten und arbeiten traditionell unter Arbeitsbedingungen, die nicht dem Normalarbeitsverhältnis entsprechen. Ihre Beschäftigungsverhältnisse und ihr Erwerb beruhen häufig nicht auf unbefristeten Vollzeitarbeitsverhältnissen. Somit vollzieht sich ihre Arbeit oft in einem organisatorischen Umfeld, das weder der lohnabhängigen noch der selbständig unternehmerischen Tätigkeit entspricht. So lautet die Kernfrage des vorliegenden Essays, inwieweit Arbeitsmärkte der Künstler und Publizisten zukunftsweisend für Beschäftigungssysteme sein können und Hinweise auf prinzipielle Veränderungen in anderen Berufs- und Tätigkeitsfeldern geben. Insbesondere die Analyse der in diesem Segment angebotenen Lösungsstrategien für die zunehmenden Unsicherheiten von Beschäftigungsverhältnissen können für eine zukünftige Wissens- und Mediengesellschaft von Bedeutung sein. Die empirische Grundlage dieser Arbeit bildet eine Analyse der Daten des Mikrozensus 1995 in Deutschland. In einer vergleichenden Analyse des Gesamtarbeitsmarktes und der Entwicklung der Künstler- und Publizistenarbeitsmärkte werden strukturelle Veränderungen in der Erwerbsarbeit nachgezeichnet. Dabei werden die Funktionsprinzipien dieser Teilarbeitsmärkte anhand einzelner Merkmale wie beispielsweise der Qualifikations- und Finanzstrukturen, der Lohnmechanismen und Modelle der sozialen Sicherung diskutiert. Abschließend werden die arbeitsmarkt- und beschäftigungspolitischen Instrumente aufgezeigt, die den wachsenden Unsicherheiten und Risiken in den Beschäftigungsverhältnissen begegnen können. Im Gegensatz zur klassischen Vollbeschäftigungsstrategie wird die regulative Idee der Übergangsarbeitsmärkte vorgeschlagen, die Lösungen für die Veränderungen in den Beschäftigungssystemen bereitstellt. -- In recent decades there have been signs of major changes in employment systems, although there is no agreement on the extent and direction of these changes. Current debates are focusing on the potential of the low wage sector, the non-profit-sector and self-employment for future employment strategies. An illustrative example of these developments can be found in the labour markets for artists and journalists. Many artists and journalists work as volunteers in the cultural sector, gain their revenues in the low paid services sector, or enter the market as “new self-employed”. Often they move between employment and non-employment under conditions which do not correspond to the “standard employment relationship” (Normalarbeitsverhältnis). Their working conditions and earnings are often not based on permanent full-time jobs. Their work is often characterised by an organisational environment that corresponds neither to classical wage dependency nor to autonomous entrepreneurship. By examining the economic and employment conditions of artists and journalists we can ask: To what extent does their experience represent a model of future employment that can provide insights into substantial changes in the overall employment system? Our analysis of strategies to protect against uncertain working conditions in this segment can indicate important policy lessons for a future information- and media- society. The empirical part of the paper analyses data drawn from the national labour force survey (German Mikrozensus 1995). In comparing the labour markets for artists and journalists in the context of the total labour market, we indicate prospective structural changes in the employment system. The mechanisms of these occupational labour market segments are discussed on the basis of individual characteristics, such as the level of qualification and financial structures, the wage mechanisms as well as models of social security. Finally the paper illustrates how labour market and employment policy can react to increasing uncertainties and risks in employment conditions. In contrast to the standard “full employment” strategy, the paper suggests the regulatory idea of transitional labour markets which suggests policy responses to changes in the employment systems.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Papers, Research Network Project "Work and Ecology" with number P 99-506.

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    Date of creation: 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbeco:p99506

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    1. Alain SUPIOT, 1999. "The transformation of work and the future of labour law in Europe: A multidisciplinary perspective," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, International Labour Organization, vol. 138(1), pages 31-46, 03.
    2. Wilthagen, Ton, 1998. "Flexicurity: A new paradigm for labour market policy reform?," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) FS I 98-202, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    3. Baumol, William J & Blackman, Sue Anne Batey & Wolff, Edward N, 1985. "Unbalanced Growth Revisited: Asymptotic Stagnancy and New Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 806-17, September.
    4. Schömann, Klaus & Kruppe, Thomas & Oschmiansky, Heidi, 1998. "Beschäftigungsdynamik und Arbeitslosigkeit in der Europäischen Union," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) FS I 98-203, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    5. Schmid, Günther, 1998. "Transitional labour markets: A new European employment strategy," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) FS I 98-206, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    6. Filer, Randall K, 1986. "The "Starving Artist"-Myth or Reality? Earnings of Artists in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(1), pages 56-75, February.
    7. Singer, Leslie P, 1981. "Supply Decisions of Professional Artists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 341-46, May.
    8. Snooks, G D, 1983. "Determinants of Earnings Inequality amongst Australian Artists," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(41), pages 322-32, December.
    9. Marlies Hummel & Cornelia Waldkircher, 1992. "Wirtschaftliche Entwicklungstrends von Kunst und Kultur," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 45(03), pages 19-32, October.
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