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Beschäftigungseffekte von Innovationen auf Unternehmensebene: Ein Überblick theoretischer und empirischer Befunde

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  • Ernst, Daniel
  • Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang

Abstract

Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Effekte von Innovationen auf die Beschäftigung innovierender Unternehmen untersucht. Es wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwiefern insbesondere Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen die Zahl der Mitarbeiter erhöhen bzw. diese verringern. Auf der theoretischen Ebene sind die Auswirkungen von Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen weitgehend offen, da sowohl negative als auch positive Einflüsse auf die Zahl der Arbeitsplätze im Unternehmen möglich sind, wenn die verschiedenen Wirkungszusammenhänge alle berücksichtigt werden. Welche der möglichen Kausalwirkungen dominiert, ist daher nur empirisch entscheidbar. Um die Beschäftigungswirkungen von Innovationen abzuschätzen, werden einschlägige empirische Studien der letzten 20 Jahre systematisch ausgewertet. Die Untersuchungen beziehen sich sowohl auf Deutschland als auch auf eine Reihe weiterer Länder, wobei der Fokus auf Europa liegt. Betrachtet werden ausschließlich quantitative Veränderungen der Beschäftigung auf der Unternehmensebene. Die vorhandenen empirischen Studien zeigen ein eindeutiges Bild: Auf Unternehmensebene führen sowohl Produkt- als auch Prozessinnovationen fast immer zu einer Beschäftigungszunahme. Im Rahmen einer deskriptiven Untersuchung ergibt sich außerdem Folgendes: Produktinnovationen wird etwas häufiger eine positive Wirkung nachgewiesen als Prozessinnovationen und die Ergebnisse sind unabhängig vom jeweils betrachteten Land gültig. Die Studien differieren jedoch zum Teil in ihren Resultaten in Abhängigkeit vom Untersuchungszeitraum, der zeitlichen Spannweite der Analyse sowie der in den Regressionsmodellen verwendeten Innovationsindikatoren. Auf Grund geringer Fallzahlen sind in dieser Hinsicht fundierte Aussagen kaum möglich. -- The paper deals with the influence of innovations on the employment at the firm level. The main question is how product- and process-innovations effect the number of employees: Do innovations lead to a decrease or increase of staff? Looking at the theory the results of product- and process innovations are not clear cut. Product and process innovations in a company may lead to a positive or negative result as to the number of employees in a firm. This is due to the fact that very different effects take place at the same time. The question of hiring or firing as the ultimate result of the adoption of innovations remains an empirical problem. Thus, the paper first summarizes the main theoretical reasoning but then concentrates on a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence as to the employment effects of innovations at the company level. Its findings are based on 40 studies published during the last 20 years. These studies cover not only Germany but include a lot of other countries with a focus on Europe. The meta-analysis only deals with quantitative changes of workforce in a company, i.e. aspects like changes with regard to the structure of the qualification of employees are left out of consideration. The empirical evidence reveals a clear result: Almost all studies find that at the company level product- and process innovations both lead to an increase of staff number. Based on a descriptive examination the following outcomes emerge: There is slightly less evidence as to the positive influence of process innovations. Overall, these positive effects do not depend on the country in question. The outcomes vary to some extent with regard to the years on which the empirical analysis relies, the range of years and with regard to the indicator variables used in order to measure the innovativeness of a firm. Due to the limited number of cases the three last observations deserve further examination.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration in its series Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Schriften with number 03/2012.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:fhjwws:032012

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Web page: http://www.bw.fh-jena.de/
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Keywords: Innovation; Produktinnovation; Prozessinnovation; Beschäftigung; Beschäftigte; Mitarbeiter; empirische Analyse; Metaanalyse; Unternehmen; Innovation; product innovation; process innovation; employment; staff; workforce; empirical analysis; meta analysis; company;

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References

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  1. Piva, Mariacristina & Vivarelli, Marco, 2003. "Innovation and Employment: Evidence from Italian Microdata," IZA Discussion Papers 730, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. David Blanchflower & Simon Burgess, 1998. "New Technology And Jobs: Comparative Evidence From A Two Country Study," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2-4), pages 109-138.
  3. Luuk Klomp & George Van Leeuwen, 2001. "Linking Innovation and Firm Performance: A New Approach," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 343-364.
  4. Brian Cozzarin, 2004. "Innovation quality and manufacturing firms' performance in Canada," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 199-216.
  5. David Giuliodori & Rodolfo Stucchi, 2012. "Innovation and job creation in a dual labor market: evidence from Spain," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(8), pages 801-813, November.
  6. Evangelista, Rinaldo & Savona, Maria, 2003. "Innovation, employment and skills in services. Firm and sectoral evidence," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 449-474, December.
  7. Van Reenen, John, 1997. "Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 255-84, April.
  8. Harabi, Najib, 2000. "Employment Effects of Ecological Innovations: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 4395, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Georg Westermanna & Holger Schaeferb, 2001. "Localised Technological Progress And Intra-Sectoral Structures Of Employment," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 23-44.
  10. Stefan Lachenmaier, 2007. "Effects of innovation on firm performance," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 28, 8.
  11. José Miguel Benavente & Rodolfo Lauterbach, 2006. "Technological Innovation and Employment: Complements or Substitutes," Working Papers, University of Chile, Department of Economics wp221, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
  12. Lachenmaier, Stefan & Rottmann, Horst, 2011. "Effects of innovation on employment: A dynamic panel analysis," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 210-220, March.
  13. Sérgio Kannebley & Júlia Sekkel & Bruno Araújo, 2010. "Economic performance of Brazilian manufacturing firms: a counterfactual analysis of innovation impacts," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 339-353, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Brink, Siegrun & Kriwoluzky, Silke & Bijedic, Teita & Ettl, Kerstin & Welter, Friederike, 2014. "Gender, Innovation und Unternehmensentwicklung," IfM-Materialien 228, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.

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