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The International Expansion of the Norwegian Banks

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  • Siv Fagerland Jacobsen
  • Adrian E. Tschoegl

Abstract

We discuss the expansion of Norwegian banks abroad in the post-World War II era. The Norwegian case gives us an opportunity to examine the determinants of the strategies that banks from a small county have followed in their international expansion. At least two issues emerge as important. The first issue is the role of regulation as goad and handicap to internationalization. Regulations influenced when, where, how and why the Norwegian banks expanded abroad. The second issue is the role of the competition and cooperation (including joint ventures) between banks.

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File URL: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/97/9738.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania in its series Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers with number 97-38.

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Date of creation: Aug 1997
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Handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:97-38

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Keywords: Norway; foreign banking; multinational banks;

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References

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  1. Kindleberger, Charles P., 1983. "International banks as leaders or followers of international business : An historical perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 583-595, December.
  2. Engwall, L. & Wallenstål, M., 1988. "Tit for tat in small steps: the internationalization of Swedish banks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3-4), pages 147-155.
  3. Edward Brown Flowers, 1976. "Oligopolistic Reactions in European and Canadian Direct Investment in the United States," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 7(2), pages 43-56, June.
  4. Chwo-Ming J Yu & Kiyohiko Ito, 1988. "Oligopolistic Reaction and Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of the U.S. Tire and Textiles Industries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 449-460, September.
  5. Heinkel, Robert L. & Levi, Maurice D., 1992. "The structure of international banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 251-272, June.
  6. Ongena, S. & Smith, D.C., 1998. "Quality and duration of banking relationships," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-80677, Tilburg University.
  7. Siv Fagerland Jacobsen & Adrian E. Tschoegl, 1997. "The Norwegian Banks in the Nordic Consortia: A Case of International Strategic Alliances in Banking," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-39, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  8. Ball, Clifford A. & Tschoegl, Adrian E., 1982. "The Decision to Establish a Foreign Bank Branch or Subsidiary: An Application of Binary Classification Procedures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(03), pages 411-424, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Degryse, H.A. & Ongena, S., 2002. "Bank-firm relationships and international banking markets," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-92220, Tilburg University.
  2. Merrett, D. T., 2002. "The internationalization of Australian banks," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 12(4-5), pages 377-397.
  3. Adrian E. Tschoegl, 1997. "Entry and Survival: The Case of Foreign Banks in Norway," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-40, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  4. Gino Cattani & Adrian E. Tschoegl, 2002. "An Evolutionary View of Internationalization: Chase Manhattan Bank, 1917 to 1996," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-37, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.

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