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The Norwegian Banks in the Nordic Consortia: A Case of International Strategic Alliances in Banking

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  • Siv Fagerland Jacobsen
  • Adrian E. Tschoegl

Abstract

Despite the scholarly interest in joint ventures and strategic alliances, the consortium bank movement represents an under-researched phase in post-war banking history. From 1964 to the mid-1980s, many of the largest banks in the world, including the Nordic banks, entered into international strategic alliances. Almost all of these alliances are now defunct. We follow the Norwegian banks in the Nordic consortia and find that domestic rivals do not cooperate but international rivals do. Legal prohibitions in the Nordic countries on entry by foreign banks underpinned the cooperation. The cooperation broke down when changes in domestic regulations permitted the Nordic banks to establish operations in each others' domestic markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania in its series Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers with number 97-39.

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Date of creation: Aug 1997
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Handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:97-39

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  1. Nakamura, Masao & Shaver, J. Myles & Yeung, Bernard, 1996. "An empirical investigation of joint venture dynamics: Evidence from U.S.-Japan joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 521-541, June.
  2. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
  3. Engwall, L. & WallenstÄl, M., 1988. "Tit for tat in small steps: the internationalization of Swedish banks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3-4), pages 147-155.
  4. Bradford Cornell & Richard Roll, 1981. "Strategies for Pairwise Competition in Markets and Organizations," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(1), pages 201-213, Spring.
  5. Engwall, Lars & Johanson, Jan, 1990. "Banks in industrial networks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 231-244.
  6. Ongena, S. & Smith, D.C., 1998. "Quality and duration of banking relationships," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-80677, Tilburg University.
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Cited by:
  1. Siv Fagerland Jacobsen & Adrian E. Tschoegl, 1997. "The International Expansion of the Norwegian Banks," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-38, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2002. "Bank-Firm Relationships and International Banking Markets," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 401-417.
  3. Lawrence White & Ingyu Chiou, 2003. "Measuring the Value of Strategic Alliances in the Wake of a Financial Implosion: Evidence from Japan's Financial Services Sector," Working Papers 03-23, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  4. Gino Cattani & Adrian E. Tschoegl, 2002. "An Evolutionary View of Internationalization: Chase Manhattan Bank, 1917 to 1996," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-37, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  5. Mutinelli, Marco & Piscitello, Lucia, 2001. "Foreign direct investment in the banking sector: the case of Italian banks in the '90s," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(6), pages 661-685, December.
  6. Engwall, Lars & Marquardt, Rolf & Pedersen, Torben & Tschoegl, Adrian E., 2001. "Foreign bank penetration of newly opened markets in the Nordic countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 53-63, March.
  7. Mauro F. Guillén & Adrian E. Tschoegl, 1999. "At Last the Internationalization of Retail Banking? The Case of the Spanish Banks in Latin America," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-41, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.

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