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The Non-linearity of the Relationship between Human Capital and Exports in Brazil – evidences of regional differences

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  • Gilberto Fraga
  • Carlos Bacha

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    Abstract

    The study of Brazilian export determinants is a very important issue to policy-markers, principally when the export determinants are different among the Brazilian states or regions. Human capital (measured by the average level of employee formal schooling) has been one of these determinants and this paper, basing on Dixit and Woodland (1982) model, aims to evaluate the role played by human capital in the evolution of Brazilian states exports from 1995 to 2006, highlighting the differences among Brazilian states and/or regions. The empirical analysis is implemented by running regression of the data organized into a panel and considering the fixed effects (i.e., the amenities) among the 27 Brazilian states. The findings are consistent with the selected theoretical model and suggest that human capital has a non-linear effect on exports. The latter suggests the continuous improvement in the worker skill should not be neglected by public policies aimed at increasing the foreign trade of Brazilian states, but the unique characteristics of these states must be taken into account.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa11p1016.

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    Date of creation: Sep 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa11p1016

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    1. Baltagi, Badi H. & Li, Qi, 1991. "A joint test for serial correlation and random individual effects," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 277-280, March.
    2. Courakis, Anthony S, 1991. "Labour Skills and Human Capital in the Explanation of Trade Patterns," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(3), pages 443-62, July.
    3. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
    4. David M. Drukker, 2003. "Testing for serial correlation in linear panel-data models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(2), pages 168-177, June.
    5. Corvers, Frank & de Grip, Andries, 1997. "Explaining trade in industrialized countries by country-specific human capital endowments," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 395-416, July.
    6. Dixit, Avinash & Woodland, Alan, 1982. "The relationship between factor endowments and commodity trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3-4), pages 201-214, November.
    7. Baltagi, Badi H. & Li, Qi, 1995. "Testing AR(1) against MA(1) disturbances in an error component model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 133-151, July.
    8. Chuang, Yih-chyi, 2000. "Human Capital, Exports, and Economic Growth: A Causality Analysis for Taiwan, 1952-1995," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(4), pages 712-20, November.
    9. Woodland, Alan D, 1980. "Direct and Indirect Trade Utility Functions," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(5), pages 907-26, October.
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