Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Growth in Commuting Distances in French Metropolitan Areas - The case of Paris

Contents:

Author Info

  • Anne Aguilera

    ()

Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    The continuous increase in the average commuting distance that characterizes European and North-American metropolitan areas is mainly the consequence of two developments. On one hand, the number of people living in a metropolitan area but working in another is on the increase. On the other hand, people living and working within the same metropolitan area are increasingly living further and further from their place of work: the 1999 and 1990 French censuses emphasize that the average (intra-metropolitan) distance from home to work has grown by 16% over the last decade. In particular, the municipality of residence is becoming increasingly different from the municipality of work. Such changes in commuting patterns, especially in the development of inter-municipality commutes, are promoting increased regular car use. These findings explain the growing interest in the relationship between urban form and commuting patterns. Given that most metropolitan areas are becoming polycentric, a body of research investigates whether polycentric distribution of people and jobs would be likely to re-organize mobility patterns in a more sustainable way. A key question is whether the development of employment subcenters would be likely to favor the co-location of workers and jobs in the suburbs and then to counteract increasing home-to-work distances. Most polycentric urban models are indeed based on the premise that people tend to locate within or close to their employment subcenter. But empirical studies tend to be more contradictory. In France, although many recent studies have underlined the development of subcenters inside most metropolitan areas and especially the biggest, links between polycentrism and commuting patterns have not been widely discussed. Urban sprawl in general is felt to be responsible for the growth of the average commuting distance insofar as the further the people live from the central city, the longer they spend commuting. But the specific impact of polycentrism and in particular the co-location hypothesis, i.e. the place of residence of those working in a subcenter, have not been questioned. In this paper two specific questions are raised. Are the people who live in a subcenter also employed in this subcenter? And do the (other) people working in a subcenter live close to this subcenter? If we compare the answers to these two questions in 1990 and in 1999, we can assess whether the situation is better or worse (in terms of proximity to place of work) in 1999 than ten years previously. The empirical work focuses on Paris which is the largest French metropolitan areas. Our findings emphasize that, although there are more jobs than working residents in all the subcenters, most people living in a subcenter work outside their subcenter of residence. This situation was also more marked by 1999 than it previously was in 1990. As a result, average commuting distances have increased for people living in a subcenter. In addition to this, the majority of jobs located in subcenters are filled by non-residents who generally live quite far from their employment subcenter, and indeed further in 1999 than they did in 1990. In conclusion we suggest some guidelines for future research.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www-sre.wu-wien.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa05/papers/255.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa05p255.

    as in new window
    Length:
    Date of creation: Aug 2005
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa05p255

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
    Web page: http://www.ersa.org

    Related research

    Keywords:

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Frédéric Gaschet, 2002. "articles: The new intra-urban dynamics: Suburbanisation and functional specialisation in French cities," Papers in Regional Science, Springer, vol. 81(1), pages 63-81.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa05p255. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.