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Environmental costs of natural resource commodities : magnitude and incidence

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  • Slade, Margaret E.

Abstract

The carrying capacity of our natural environment is an important unpriced input to production. A consensus is growing that users should pay for the environmental damage that they cause. Although most people can accept this policy in principle, many are concerned with magnitude and incidence of its associated costs and the disruptions that would be created during a transition period. Of particular concern is the burden that might be placed on the economics of developing countries. When the industrial world was developing, it was able to benefit from cheap natural-resource commodities. It is fair to expect countries that are trying to imitate this pattern to pay more? Unfortunately there are not reliable estimates of the effects of environmental protection costs on production, consumption, revenues, and foreign exchange. The author explores these issues for the energy and nonfuel-mineral markets, sectors responsible for much of the current industrial pollution. Using a model, the author, examines the consequences of the developing world adopting the environmental standards of the industrialized world. The author assumes: all producers incur clean-up costs; most adjustment is made through changes in prices and quantities, not through altered trade patterns; and the industrialized world increases its environmental expenditures by the same fraction as the developing world. The author finds that increased revenue resources will more than compensate the average developing country for the costs of pollution control, so no assistance or intervention would be required. This assumes, however, that capital markets are perfect, which is far from the case in many developing countries. These imperfections constitute the greatest obstacle to successful environmental regulation. Loans of subsidies from North to South should be considered. Developing country producers should be given access to credit dollars, prices of imported pollution-abatement equipment could be reduced, or aid could be tied to the installation and maintenance of environmental capital. The author finds that environmental protection costs are small. Compliance costs of roughly three percent of product prices lead to changes in export revenues of less than one percent. The principal reason for this result is that mineral commodity demand and supply are inelastic in the long run. As for the incidence of environmental costs, an environmental"tax"is on average progressive, because low-income countries are typically net exporters of mineral commodities, where as high-income countries are net importers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 991.

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Date of creation: 31 Oct 1992
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:991

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Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Energy and Environment; Health Economics&Finance; Consumption;

References

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  1. Robison, H David, 1985. "Who Pays for Industrial Pollution Abatement?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(4), pages 702-06, November.
  2. Slade, Margaret E, 1991. "Market Structure, Marketing Method, and Price Instability," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(4), pages 1309-40, November.
  3. Dean, Judith M., 1992. "Trade and the environment : a survey of the literature," Policy Research Working Paper Series 966, The World Bank.
  4. Mutti, John H. & Richardson, J. David, 1977. "International competitive displacement from environmental control The quantitative gains from methodological refinement," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 135-152, June.
  5. Seale, James Jr. & Walker, Wayne E. & Kim, In-Moo, 1991. "The demand for energy : Cross-country evidence using the Florida model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 33-40, January.
  6. H. David Robison, 1988. "Industrial Pollution Abatement: The Impact on Balance of Trade," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 21(1), pages 187-99, February.
  7. Hollenbeck, Kevin, 1979. "The employment and earnings impacts of the regulation of stationary source air pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 208-221, September.
  8. Peter Hoeller & Andrew Dean & Jon Nicolaisen, 1990. "A Survey of Studies of the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 89, OECD Publishing.
  9. Robert S. Pindyck, 1979. "The Structure of World Energy Demand," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262661772, December.
  10. Hazilla, Michael & Kopp, Raymond J, 1990. "Social Cost of Environmental Quality Regulations: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(4), pages 853-73, August.
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