The macroeconomics of public sector deficits : the case of Ghana
AbstractGhana's economic program after independence emphasized public investment and spending as the road to growth, a strategy that led to recurring fiscal deficits and declining growth. Since the 1984 Economic Recovery Program, Ghana's fiscal deficits have declined and the public sector has been rationalized. Average growth rates have become positive. The authors provide two different definitions of the fiscal deficit in Ghana. The first, more conventional approach aggregates components of the public sector, including the central government, the social security and national insurance trust, state-owned enterprises, and the cocoa marketing board. The second way looks at the total financing flows to the public sector. Data on the central government debt are supplemented with data on the claims of the central bank and banking system against state-owned enterprises and data on public external debt. The authors examine the ways Ghana chose to finance its deficits and how these affected the financial side of the economy. They found that : 1) the fiscal deficit has had only little effect on private consumption; 2) public sector investment in Ghana has mostly substituted for private investment; and 3) the fiscal deficit had a significant negative effect on the external side. The official real exchange rate tended to appreciate, the trade balance worsened, and the black market premium rose.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 672.
Date of creation: 31 May 1991
Date of revision:
Economic Stabilization; National Governance; Economic Theory&Research; Public Sector Economics&Finance; Banks&Banking Reform;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Buiter, Willem H, 1988.
"Some Thoughts on the Role of Fiscal Policy in Stabilization and Structural Adjustment in Developing Countries,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
260, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Willem H. Buiter, 1988. "Some Thoughts on the Role of Fiscal Policy in Stabilisation and Structural Adjustment in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 2603, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Buiter, W.H., 1988. "Some Thoughts On The Role Of Fiscal Policy In Stabilisation And Structural Adjustment In Developing Countries," Papers 312, London School of Economics - Centre for Labour Economics.
- Olivier J. Blanchard, 1984.
"Debt, Deficits and Finite Horizons,"
NBER Working Papers
1389, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- R. Glenn Hubbard & Kenneth L. Judd, 1986. "Liquidity Constraints, Fiscal Policy, and Consumption," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 17(1), pages 1-60.
- Davidson, James E H, et al, 1978. "Econometric Modelling of the Aggregate Time-Series Relationship between Consumers' Expenditure and Income in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 88(352), pages 661-92, December.
- B. Douglas Bernheim, 1987.
"Ricardian Equivalence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence,"
in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1987, Volume 2, pages 263-316
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- B. Douglas Bernheim, 1988. "Ricardian Equivalence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 2330, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Seater, John J. & Mariano, Roberto S., 1985. "New tests of the life cycle and tax discounting hypotheses," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 195-215, March.
- Feldstein, Martin, 1982.
"Government deficits and aggregate demand,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-20.
- Hall, Robert E & Mishkin, Frederic S, 1982.
"The Sensitivity of Consumption to Transitory Income: Estimates from Panel Data on Households,"
Econometric Society, vol. 50(2), pages 461-81, March.
- Robert E. Hall & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1982. "The Sensitivity of Consumption to Transitory Income: Estimates from Panel Data on Households," NBER Working Papers 0505, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thomas J. Sargent & Neil Wallace, 1981. "Some unpleasant monetarist arithmetic," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall.
- Barro, Robert J, 1974.
"Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1095-1117, Nov.-Dec..
- Hall, Robert E, 1978. "Stochastic Implications of the Life Cycle-Permanent Income Hypothesis: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 971-87, December.
- Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1977. "Inflation, Capital, and Deficit Finance," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 9(1), pages 141-50, February.
- Fumio Hayashi, 1979. "The Permanent Income Hypothesis: Estimation and Testing," Discussion Papers 484, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Nadeem U. Haque, 1988. "Fiscal Policy and Private Sector Saving Behavior in Developing Economies," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(2), pages 316-335, June.
- James Tobin & Willem H. Buiter, 1974. "Long Run Effects of Fiscal and Monetary Policy on Aggregate Demand," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 384, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Blinder, Alan S. & Solow, Robert M., 1973. "Does fiscal policy matter?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 319-337.
- Aschauer, David Alan, 1985. "Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 117-27, March.
- Easterly, William, 1989. "A consistency framework for macroeconomic analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 234, The World Bank.
- Boskin, Michael J, 1982. "Federal Government Deficits: Some Myths and Realities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 296-303, May.
- Lucas, Robert Jr, 1976. "Econometric policy evaluation: A critique," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 19-46, January.
- Easterly, William R., 1989. "Fiscal adjustment and deficit financing during the debt crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 138, The World Bank.
- van Wijnbergen, S., 1982. "Stagflationary effects of monetary stabilization policies : A quantitative analysis of South Korea," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 133-169, April.
- Marshall, Jorge & Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus, 1989. "Economic and policy determinants of public sector deficits," Policy Research Working Paper Series 321, The World Bank.
- Feldstein, Martin, 1988.
"The Effects of Fiscal Policies when Incomes Are Uncertain: A Contradiction to Ricardian Equivalence,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 78(1), pages 14-23, March.
- Martin Feldstein, 1988. "The Effects of Fiscal Policies When Incomes are Uncertain: A Contradiction to Ricardian Equivalence," NBER Working Papers 2062, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- van Wijnbergen, Sweder & Rocha, Robert & Anand, Ritu, 1989. "Inflation, external debt, and financial sector reform : a quantitative approach to consistent fiscal policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 261, The World Bank.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.