What explains big gender disparities in India ? local industrial structures and female entrepreneurship
AbstractDespite rapid economic growth, gender disparities in women's economic participation have remained deep and persistent in India. What explains these huge gender disparities? Is it poor infrastructure, limited education, and gender composition of the labor force and industries? Or is it deficiencies in social and business networks and a low share of incumbent female entrepreneurs?This paper analyzes the spatial determinants of female entrepreneurship in India in the manufacturing and services sectors. Good infrastructure and education predict higher female entry shares. There are strong agglomeration economies in both manufacturing and services, where higher female ownership among incumbent businesses within a district-industry predicts a greater share of subsequent entrepreneurs will be female. Moreover, higher female ownership of local businesses in related industries (similar labor needs, input-output markets) predicts greater relative female entry rates. Gender networks thus clearly matter for women's economic participation. However, there is a need to develop a better understanding of how gender networks influence aggregate efficiency. There is no doubt that gender empowerment can be the escalator to realizing human potential and for creating a robust platform for growth and job creation.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6228.
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2012
Date of revision:
Banks&Banking Reform; Housing&Human Habitats; Water and Industry; E-Business; Gender and Law;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-10-27 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2012-10-27 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-ENT-2012-10-27 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-GEO-2012-10-27 (Economic Geography)
- NEP-PBE-2012-10-27 (Public Economics)
- NEP-URE-2012-10-27 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Klaus Desmet & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2014.
American Economic Review, American Economic Association,
American Economic Association, vol. 104(4), pages 1211-43, April.
- Klaus Desmet & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2009. "Spatial Development," NBER Working Papers 15349, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Klaus Desmet & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2010. "Spatial Development," Working Papers, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei 2010.26, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Klaus Desmet & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2009. "Spatial development," Working Papers, Instituto MadrileÃ±o de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Ciencias Sociales 2009-18, Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Ciencias Sociales, revised 28 May 2010.
- Desmet, Klaus & Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban, 2009. "Spatial Development," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 7479, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Estrin, Saul & Mickiewicz, Tomasz, 2009. "Do Institutions Have a Greater Effect on Female Entrepreneurs?," IZA Discussion Papers 4577, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fernandes, Ana M. & Sharma, Gunjan, 2012. "Together we stand ? agglomeration in Indian manufacturing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6062, The World Bank.
- Desmet, Klaus & Ghani, Ejaz & O'Connell, Stephen D & Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban, 2013.
"The Spatial Development of India,"
CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers
9433, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Amin, Mohammad & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2008. "Human capital and the changing structure of the Indian economy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4576, The World Bank.
- Uwe Deichmann & Somik V. Lall & Stephen J. Redding & Anthony J. Venables, 2008. "Industrial Location in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 23(2), pages 219-246, May.
- Erica Field & Seema Jayachandran & Rohini Pande, 2010. "Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 125-29, May.
- Bruhn, Miriam, 2009. "Female-owned firms in Latin America : characteristics, performance, and obstacles to growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5122, The World Bank.
- Ejaz Ghani & William Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, 2013.
"Promoting Women's Economic Participation in India,"
World Bank Other Operational Studies
17013, The World Bank.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.